Verathamjamras C, Sriwitool TE, Netsirisawan P, Chaiyawat P, Chokchaichamnankit D, Prasongsook N, Srisomsap C, Svasti J, Champattanachai V.
Aberrant RL2 O-GlcNAc antibody reactivity against serum-IgA1 of patients with colorectal cancer.
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation, a single attachment of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) on serine and threonine residues, plays important roles in normal and pathobiological states of many diseases. Aberrant expression of O-GlcNAc modification was found in many types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC). This modification mainly occurs in nuclear-cytoplasmic proteins; however, it can exist in some extracellular and secretory proteins. In this study, we investigated whether O-GlcNAc-modified proteins are present in serum of patients with CRC. Serum glycoproteins of CRC patients and healthy controls were enriched by wheat germ agglutinin, a glycan binding protein specifically binds to terminal GlcNAc and sialic acid. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, RL2 O-GlcNAc immunoblotting, affinity purification, and mass spectrometry were performed. The results showed that RL2 O-GlcNAc antibody predominantly reacted against serum immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1). The levels of RL2-reacted IgA were significantly increased while total IgA were not different in patients with CRC compared to those of healthy controls. Analyses by ion trap mass spectrometry using collision-induced dissociation and electron-transfer dissociation modes revealed one O-linked N-acetylhexosamine modification site at Ser268 located in the heavy constant region of IgA1; unfortunately, it cannot be discriminated whether it was N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine because of their identical molecular mass. Although failed to demonstrate unequivocally it was O-GlcNAc, these data indicated that serum-IgA had an aberrantly increased reactivity against RL2 O-GlcNAc antibody in CRC patients. This specific glycosylated form of serum-IgA1 will expand the spectrum of aberrant glycosylation which provides valuable information to cancer glycobiology.
Li F, Yang G, Tachikawa H, Shao K, Yang Y, Gao XD, Nakanishi H.
Identification of novel O-GlcNAc transferase substrates using yeast cells expressing OGT.
The Journal of general and applied microbiology2021
Abstract: O-GlcNAc modification mediated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is a reversible protein modification in which O-GlcNAc moieties are attached to target proteins in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria. O-GlcNAc moieties attached to proteins can be removed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA). The addition of an O-GlcNAc moiety can influence several aspects of protein function, and aberrant O-GlcNAc modification is linked to a number of diseases. While OGT and OGA are conserved across eukaryotic cells, yeasts lack these enzymes. Previously, we reported that protein O-GlcNAc modification occurred in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae when OGT was ectopically expressed. Because yeast cells lack OGA, O-GlcNAc moieties are stably attached to target proteins. Thus, the yeast system may be useful for finding novel OST substrates. By proteomic analysis, we identified 468 O-GlcNAcylated proteins in yeast cells expressing human OGT. Among these proteins, 13 have human orthologues that show more than 30% identity to their corresponding yeast orthologue, and possible glycosylation residues are conserved in these human orthologues. In addition, the orthologues have not been reported as substrates of OGT. We verified that some of these human orthologues are O-GlcNAcylated in cultured human cells. These proteins include an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UBE2D1, and an eRF3-similar protein, HBS1L. Thus, the yeast system would be useful to find previously unknown O-GlcNAcylated proteins and regulatory mechanisms.
Balana AT, Levine PM, Craven TW, Mukherjee S, Pedowitz NJ, Moon SP, Takahashi TT, Becker CFW, Baker D, Pratt MR.
O-GlcNAc modification of small heat shock proteins enhances their anti-amyloid chaperone activity.
Abstract: A major role for the intracellular post-translational modification O-GlcNAc appears to be the inhibition of protein aggregation. Most of the previous studies in this area focused on O-GlcNAc modification of the amyloid-forming proteins themselves. Here we used synthetic protein chemistry to discover that O-GlcNAc also activates the anti-amyloid activity of certain small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), a potentially more important modification event that can act broadly and substoichiometrically. More specifically, we found that O-GlcNAc increases the ability of sHSPs to block the amyloid formation of both α-synuclein and Aβ(1-42). Mechanistically, we show that O-GlcNAc near the sHSP IXI-domain prevents its ability to intramolecularly compete with substrate binding. Finally, we found that, although O-GlcNAc levels are globally reduced in Alzheimer's disease brains, the modification of relevant sHSPs is either maintained or increased, which suggests a mechanism to maintain these potentially protective O-GlcNAc modifications. Our results have important implications for neurodegenerative diseases associated with amyloid formation and potentially other areas of sHSP biology.
Joiner CM, Hammel FA, Janetzko J, Walker S.
Protein Substrates Engage the Lumen of O-GlcNAc Transferase's Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain in Different Ways.
Abstract: Glycosylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins is an essential post-translational modification in mammals. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the sole enzyme responsible for this modification, glycosylates more than 1000 unique nuclear and cytoplasmic substrates. How OGT selects its substrates is a fundamental question that must be answered to understand OGT's unusual biology. OGT contains a long tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that has been implicated in substrate selection, but there is almost no information about how changes to this domain affect glycosylation of individual substrates. By profiling O-GlcNAc in cell extracts and probing glycosylation of purified substrates, we show here that ladders of asparagines and aspartates that extend the full length of OGT's TPR lumen control substrate glycosylation. Different substrates are sensitive to changes in different regions of OGT's TPR lumen. We also found that substrates with glycosylation sites close to the C-terminus bypass lumenal binding. Our findings demonstrate that substrates can engage OGT in a variety of different ways for glycosylation.
Pennarubia F, Germot A, Pinault E, Maftah A, Legardinier S.
The single EGF-like domain of mouse PAMR1 is modified by O-Glucose, O-Fucose and O-GlcNAc.
Abstract: Epidermal growth factor-like domains (EGF-LDs) of membrane and secreted proteins can be modified by N-glycans and/or potentially elongated O-linked monosaccharides such as O-glucose (O-Glc) found at two positions (O-Glc 1 and O-Glc2), O-fucose (O-Fuc) and O-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). The presence of three O-linked sugars within the same EGF-LD, such as in EGF-LD 20 of NOTCH1, has rarely been evidenced. We searched in KEGG GENES database to list mouse and human proteins with an EGF-LD sequence including one, two, three or four potential O-glycosylation consensus sites. Among the 129 murine retrieved proteins, most had predicted O-fucosylation and/or O-GlcNAcylation sites. Around 68% of EGF-LDs were subjected to only one O-linked sugar modification and near 5% to three modifications. Among these latter, we focused on the peptidase domain-containing protein associated with muscle regeneration 1 (PAMR1), having only one EGF-LD. To test the ability of this domain to be glycosylated, a correctly folded EGF-LD was produced in Escherichia coli periplasm, purified and subjected to in vitro incubations with the recombinant O-glycosyltransferases POGLUT1, POFUT1 and EOGT, adding O-Glc1, O-Fuc and O-GlcNAc, respectively. Using click chemistry and mass spectrometry, isolated PAMR1 EGF-LD was demonstrated to be modified by the three O-linked sugars. Their presence was individually confirmed on EGF-LD of full-length mouse recombinant PAMR1, with at least some molecules modified by both O-Glc1 and O-Fuc. Overall, these results are consistent with the presence of a triple O-glycosylated EGF-LD in mouse PAMR1.
Hu J, Gao Q, Yang Y, Xia J, Zhang W, Chen Y, Zhou Z, Chang L, Hu Y, Zhou H, Liang L, Li X, Long Q, Wang K, Huang A, Tang N.
Hexosamine biosynthetic pathway promotes the antiviral activity of SAMHD1 by enhancing O-GlcNAc transferase-mediated protein O-GlcNAcylation.
Abstract: Rationale: Viruses hijack the host cell machinery to promote viral replication; however, the mechanism by which metabolic reprogramming regulates innate antiviral immunity in the host remains elusive. Herein, we explore how the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and O-linked-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) regulate host antiviral response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo.Methods: We conducted a metabolomics assay to evaluate metabolic responses of host cells to HBV infection. We systematically explored the role of HBP and protein O-GlcNAcylation in regulating HBV infection in cell and mouse models. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) target proteins were identified via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Additionally, we also examined uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcNAc biosynthesis and O-GlcNAcylation levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Results: HBV infection upregulated GLUT1 expression on the hepatocyte surface and facilitated glucose uptake, which provides substrates to HBP to synthesize UDP-GlcNAc, leading to an increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation. Pharmacological or transcriptional inhibition of HBP and O-GlcNAcylation promoted HBV replication. Mechanistically, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT)-mediated O-GlcNAcylation of sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) on Ser93 stabilizes SAMHD1 and enhances its antiviral activity. Analysis of clinical samples revealed that UDP-GlcNAc level was increased, and SAMHD1 was O-GlcNAcylated in patients with CHB. Conclusions: HBP-mediated O-GlcNAcylation positively regulates host antiviral response against HBV in vitro and in vivo. The findings reveal a link between HBP, O-GlcNAc modification, and innate antiviral immunity by targeting SAMHD1.
Brainard RE, Facundo HT.
Cardiac hypertrophy drives PGC-1α suppression associated with enhanced O-glycosylation.
Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease2021
Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) regulates metabolism and is essential for normal cardiac function. Its activity is suppressed during pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy and such suppression at least partially contributes to the associated morbidity. The O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine post-translational modification (O-GlcNAc) of proteins is a glucose-derived metabolic signal. The relationship between O-GlcNAc, and PGC-1α activity in cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. We hypothesized that hypertrophy-induced suppression of PGC-1α was at least partially regulated by O-GlcNAc signaling. Treatment of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with phenylephrine (an inducer of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy) significantly enhanced global O-GlcNAc signaling. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a downregulation of PGC-1α with concomitant suppression of fatty acid oxidation/mitochondrial genes. Transverse aortic constriction in mice decreased the basal expression of PGC-1α and its downstream genes. Reduction of O-GlcNAc signaling alleviated suppression of PGC-1α and most of its downstream genes. Interestingly, augmentation of O-GlcNAc signaling with glucosamine or PUGNAC (a O-GlcNAcase inhibitor) reduced glucose starvation-induced PGC-1α upregulation even in the absence of hypertrophy. Finally, we found that PGC-1α itself is O-GlcNAcylated. Together, these results reveal the recruitment of O-GlcNAc signaling as a potentially novel regulator of PGC-1α activity during cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, O-GlcNAc signaling may mediate constitutive suppression of PGC-1α activity in the heart. Such findings illuminate new possibilities regarding the inter-regulation of O-GlcNAc signaling and also may have some implications for metabolic dysregulation during cardiac diseases.
Ge Y, Ramirez DH, Yang B, D'Souza AK, Aonbangkhen C, Wong S, Woo CM.
Target protein deglycosylation in living cells by a nanobody-fused split O-GlcNAcase.
Nature chemical biology2021
Abstract: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an essential and dynamic post-translational modification that is presented on thousands of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Interrogating the role of O-GlcNAc on a single target protein is crucial, yet challenging to perform in cells. Herein, we developed a nanobody-fused split O-GlcNAcase (OGA) as an O-GlcNAc eraser for selective deglycosylation of a target protein in cells. After systematic cellular optimization, we identified a split OGA with reduced inherent deglycosidase activity that selectively removed O-GlcNAc from the desired target protein when directed by a nanobody. We demonstrate the generality of the nanobody-fused split OGA using four nanobodies against five target proteins and use the system to study the impact of O-GlcNAc on the transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos. The nanobody-directed O-GlcNAc eraser provides a new strategy for the functional evaluation and engineering of O-GlcNAc via the selective removal of O-GlcNAc from individual proteins directly in cells.
Chen J, Dong X, Cheng X, Zhu Q, Zhang J, Li Q, Huang X, Wang M, Li L, Guo W, Sun B, Shu Q, Yi W, Li X.
Ogt controls neural stem/progenitor cell pool and adult neurogenesis through modulating Notch signaling.
Abstract: Ogt catalyzed O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation, O-GlcNAc) plays an important function in diverse biological processes and diseases. However, the roles of Ogt in regulating neurogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Ogt deficiency or depletion in adult neural stem/progenitor cells (aNSPCs) leads to the diminishment of the aNSPC pool and aberrant neurogenesis and consequently impairs cognitive function in adult mice. RNA sequencing reveals that Ogt deficiency alters the transcription of genes relating to cell cycle, neurogenesis, and neuronal development. Mechanistic studies show that Ogt directly interacts with Notch1 and catalyzes the O-GlcNAc modification of Notch TM/ICD fragment. Decreased O-GlcNAc modification of TM/ICD increases the binding of E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch to TM/ICD and promotes its degradation. Itch knockdown rescues neurogenic defects induced by Ogt deficiency in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal the essential roles and mechanisms of Ogt and O-GlcNAc modification in regulating mammalian neurogenesis and cognition.
Tan W, Jiang P, Zhang W, Hu Z, Lin S, Chen L, Li Y, Peng C, Li Z, Sun A, Chen Y, Zhu W, Xue Y, Yao Y, Li X, Song Q, He F, Qin W, Pei H.
Posttranscriptional regulation of de novo lipogenesis by glucose-induced O-GlcNAcylation.
Abstract: O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is attached to proteins under glucose-replete conditions; this posttranslational modification results in molecular and physiological changes that affect cell fate. Here we show that posttranslational modification of serine/arginine-rich protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) by O-GlcNAc regulates de novo lipogenesis by regulating pre-mRNA splicing. We found that O-GlcNAc transferase O-GlcNAcylated SRPK2 at a nuclear localization signal (NLS), which triggers binding of SRPK2 to importin α. Consequently, O-GlcNAcylated SRPK2 was imported into the nucleus, where it phosphorylated serine/arginine-rich proteins and promoted splicing of lipogenic pre-mRNAs. We determined that protein nuclear import by O-GlcNAcylation-dependent binding of cargo protein to importin α might be a general mechanism in cells. This work reveals a role of O-GlcNAc in posttranscriptional regulation of de novo lipogenesis, and our findings indicate that importin α is a "reader" of an O-GlcNAcylated NLS.
Liu J, Shao X, Qin W, Zhang Y, Dang F, Yang Q, Yu X, Li YX, Chen X, Wang C, Wang YL.
Quantitative chemoproteomics reveals O-GlcNAcylation of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) represses trophoblast syncytialization.
Cell chemical biology202133626323
Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates the involvement of O-GlcNAc modification in placental development and pregnant health through mechanisms that are not well understood. Herein, by applying the quantitative O-GlcNAc proteomics, we established a database of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in human placental trophoblasts. Hundreds of proteins that were dynamically O-GlcNAcylated during trophoblast differentiation were identified, among which cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) exhibited the most significant change. Site-specific analysis by mass spectrometry revealed Ser138 as the core O-GlcNAc site in CSE, and its O-GlcNAcylation promoted the enzymatic activity to produce H2S, which in turn repressed trophoblast differentiation via inhibiting androgen receptor dimerization. Consistently, in preeclamptic placentas, remarkably enhanced CSE O-GlcNAcylation and H2S production were associated with restricted trophoblast differentiation. The findings establish a resource of O-GlcNAc dynamics in human placenta, and provide a deeper insight into the biological significance of O-GlcNAcylation in placental development as well as potential therapeutic targets for the relevant pregnant complications.
Bi Y, Deng Z, Ni W, Shrestha R, Savage D, Hartwig T, Patil S, Hong SH, Zhang Z, Oses-Prieto JA, Li KH, Quail PH, Burlingame AL, Xu SL, Wang ZY.
Arabidopsis ACINUS is O-glycosylated and regulates transcription and alternative splicing of regulators of reproductive transitions.
Abstract: O-GlcNAc modification plays important roles in metabolic regulation of cellular status. Two homologs of O-GlcNAc transferase, SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY), which have O-GlcNAc and O-fucosyl transferase activities, respectively, are essential in Arabidopsis but have largely unknown cellular targets. Here we show that AtACINUS is O-GlcNAcylated and O-fucosylated and mediates regulation of transcription, alternative splicing (AS), and developmental transitions. Knocking-out both AtACINUS and its distant paralog AtPININ causes severe growth defects including dwarfism, delayed seed germination and flowering, and abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity. Transcriptomic and protein-DNA/RNA interaction analyses demonstrate that AtACINUS represses transcription of the flowering repressor FLC and mediates AS of ABH1 and HAB1, two negative regulators of ABA signaling. Proteomic analyses show AtACINUS's O-GlcNAcylation, O-fucosylation, and association with splicing factors, chromatin remodelers, and transcriptional regulators. Some AtACINUS/AtPININ-dependent AS events are altered in the sec and spy mutants, demonstrating a function of O-glycosylation in regulating alternative RNA splicing.
Luanpitpong S, Poohadsuan J, Klaihmon P, Kang X, Tangkiettrakul K, Issaragrisil S.
Metabolic sensor O-GlcNAcylation regulates megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis through c-Myc stabilization and integrin perturbation.
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)2021
Abstract: Metabolic state of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is an important regulator of self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation. Posttranslational modification of proteins via O-GlcNAcylation is an ideal metabolic sensor, but how it contributes to megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis remains unknown. Here, we reveal for the first time that cellular O-GlcNAcylation levels decline along the course of megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation from human-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Inhibition of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) that catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation prolongedly decreases O-GlcNAcylation and induces the acquisition of CD34+ CD41a+ MK-like progenitors and its progeny CD34- CD41a+ /CD42b+ megakaryoblasts (MBs)/MKs from HSPCs, consequently resulting in increased CD41a+ and CD42b+ platelets. Using correlation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses, we further identify c-Myc as a direct downstream target of O-GlcNAcylation in MBs/MKs and provide compelling evidence on the regulation of platelets by novel O-GlcNAc/c-Myc axis. Our data indicate that O-GlcNAcylation posttranslationally regulates c-Myc stability by interfering with its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Depletion of c-Myc upon inhibition of OGT promotes platelet formation in part through the perturbation of cell adhesion molecules, that is, integrin-α4 and integrin-β7, as advised by gene ontology and enrichment analysis for RNA sequencing and validated herein. Together, our findings provide a novel basic knowledge on the regulatory role of O-GlcNAcylation in megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis that could be important in understanding hematologic disorders whose etiology are related to impaired platelet production and may have clinical applications toward an ex vivo platelet production for transfusion.
Shin EM, Huynh VT, Neja SA, Liu CY, Raju A, Tan K, Tan NS, Gunaratne J, Bi X, Iyer LM, Aravind L, Tergaonkar V.
GREB1: An evolutionarily conserved protein with a glycosyltransferase domain links ERα glycosylation and stability to cancer.
Abstract: What covalent modifications control the temporal ubiquitination of ERα and hence the duration of its transcriptional activity remain poorly understood. We show that GREB1, an ERα-inducible enzyme, catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of ERα at residues T553/S554, which stabilizes ERα protein by inhibiting association with the ubiquitin ligase ZNF598. Loss of GREB1-mediated glycosylation of ERα results in reduced cellular ERα levels and insensitivity to estrogen. Higher GREB1 expression in ERα+ve breast cancer is associated with greater survival in response to tamoxifen, an ERα agonist. Mice lacking Greb1 exhibit growth and fertility defects reminiscent of phenotypes in ERα-null mice. In summary, this study identifies GREB1, a protein with an evolutionarily conserved domain related to DNA-modifying glycosyltransferases of bacteriophages and kinetoplastids, as the first inducible and the only other (apart from OGT) O-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase in mammalian cytoplasm and ERα as its first substrate.
Fan Z, Li J, Liu T, Zhang Z, Qin W, Qian X.
A new tandem enrichment strategy for the simultaneous profiling of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation in RNA-binding proteome.
Abstract: RNA-protein interactions play important roles in almost every step of the lifetime of RNAs, such as RNA splicing, transporting, localization, translation and degradation. Post-translational modifications, such as O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation, and their "cross-talk" (OPCT) are essential to the activity and function regulation of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). However, due to the extremely low abundance of O-GlcNAcylation and the lack of RBP-targeted enrichment strategies, large-scale simultaneous profiling of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation on RBPs is still a challenging task. In the present study, we developed a tandem enrichment strategy combining metabolic labeling-based RNA tagging for selective purification of RBPs and HILIC-based enrichment for simultaneous O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation profiling. Benefiting from the sequence-independent RNA tagging by ethynyluridine (EU) labeling, 1115 RBPs binding to different types of RNAs were successfully enriched and identified by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Further HILIC enrichment on the tryptic-digested RBPs and MS analysis led to the first large-scale identification of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation in the RNA-binding proteome, with 461 O-GlcNAc peptides corresponding to 300 RBPs and 671 phosphopeptides corresponding to 389 RBPs. Interestingly, ∼25% RBPs modified by two PTMs were found to be related to multiple metabolism pathways. This strategy has the advantage of high compatibility with MS and provides peptide-level evidence for the identification of O-GlcNAcylated RBPs. We expect it will support simultaneous mapping of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation on RBPs and facilitate further elucidation of the crucial roles of OPCT in the function regulation of RBPs.
Park SJ, Bae JE, Jo DS, Kim JB, Park NY, Fang J, Jung YK, Jo DG, Cho DH.
Increased O-GlcNAcylation of Drp1 by amyloid-beta promotes mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in neuronal cells.
Abstract: As a dynamic organelle, mitochondria continuously fuse and divide with adjacent mitochondria. Imbalance in mitochondria dynamics leads to their dysfunction, which implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. However, how mitochondria alteration and glucose defect contribute to pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still largely unknown. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is an essential regulator for mitochondria fission. Among various posttranslational modifications, O-GlcNAcylation plays a role as a sensor for nutrient and oxidative stress. In this study, we identified that Drp1 is regulated by O-GlcNAcylation in AD models. Treatment of Aβ as well as PugNAc resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation in neuronal cells. Moreover, we found that AD mice brain exhibits an upregulated Drp1 O-GlcNAcylation. However, depletion of OGT inhibited Drp1 O-GlcNAcylation in Aβ-treated cells. In addition, overexpression of O-GlcNAc defective Drp1 mutant (T585A and T586A) decreased Drp1 O-GlcNAcylation and Aβ-induced mitochondria fragmentation. Taken together, these finding suggest that Aβ regulates mitochondrial fission by increasing O-GlcNAcylation of Drp1.
Choudhary P, Badmalia MD, Ashish., Rao A.
Shape-function insights into bifunctional O-GlcNActransferase of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e.
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins. O-GlcNAcylated proteins have crucial roles in several cellular contexts both in eukaryotes and bacteria. O-GlcNActransferase (OGT) is the enzyme instrumental in O-GlcNAcylation of proteins. OGT is conserved across eukaryotes. The first bacterial OGT discovered is GmaR in Listeria monocytogenes. GmaR is a GT-2 family bifunctional protein that catalyzes glycosylation of the flagellin protein FlaA and controls transcription of flagellar motility genes in a temperature-dependent manner. Here, we provide methods for heterologous expression and purification of recombinant GmaR and FlaA, in vivo/in vitro glycosylation assays, analysis of the molecular form of recombinant GmaR and detailed enzyme kinetics. We study the structure and functional dynamics of GmaR. Using solution small-angle X-ray scattering and molecular modeling, we show that GmaR adopts an extended shape with two distinctly spaced structural units in the presence of cofactor Mg2+ and with donor UDP-GlcNAc and cofactor combined. Comparisons of restored structures revealed that in-solution binding of Mg2+ ions brings about shape rearrangements and induces structural-rigidity in hyper-variable regions at the N-terminus of GmaR protein. Taking function and shape data together, we describe that Mg2+ binding enables GmaR to adopt a shape that can bind the substrate. The manuscript provides the first 3D solution structure of a bacterial OGT of GT-2 family and detailed biochemical characterization of GmaR to facilitate its future applications.
Cao Y, Liu X, Zhao J, Du M.
AMPKα1 regulates Idh2 transcription through H2B O-GlcNAcylation during brown adipogenesis.
Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica2021
Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is indispensable for the development and maintenance of brown adipose tissue (BAT), and its activity is inhibited due to obesity. The isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the production of α-ketoglutarate, a key intermediate metabolite integrating multiple metabolic processes. We previously found that AMPKα1 ablation reduced cellular α-ketoglutarate concentration during brown adipocyte differentiation, but the effect of AMPKα1 on Idh2 expression remains undefined. In the present study, mouse C3H10T1/2 cells were transfected with Idh2-CRISPR/Cas9, and induced to brown adipogenesis. Our data suggested that brown adipogenesis was compromised due to IDH2 deficiency in vitro, which was accompanied by down-regulation of PR-domain containing 16. Importantly, the IDH2 content was reduced in brown stromal vascular cells (BSVs) separated from AMPKα1 knockout (KO) BAT, which was associated with lower contents of histone 2B (H2B) O-GlcNAcylation and monoubiquitination. Furthermore, both GlcNAcylated-H2B (S112) and ubiquityl-histone 2B (K120) contents in the Idh2 promoter were decreased in AMPKα1 KO BSVs. Meanwhile, ectopic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) expression was positively correlated with Idh2 expression, while OGT (T444A) mutation abolished the regulatory effect of AMPKα1 on Idh2. In vivo, reduced AMPKα1 activity and lower IDH2 abundance were observed in BAT of obese mice when compared with those in control mice. Taken together, our data demonstrated that IDH2 is necessary for brown adipogenesis and that AMPKα1 deficiency attenuates Idh2 expression, which might be by suppressing H2B O-GlcNAcylation modification.
Lin CH, Liao CC, Chen MY, Chou TY.
Feedback Regulation of O-GlcNAc Transferase through Translation Control to Maintain Intracellular O-GlcNAc Homeostasis.
International journal of molecular sciences2021
Abstract: Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification involving the attachment of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to the hydroxyl groups of Ser/Thr residues on numerous nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Two enzymes are responsible for O-GlcNAc cycling on substrate proteins: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition while O-GlcNAcase (OGA) helps the removal of GlcNAc. O-GlcNAcylation modifies protein functions; therefore, dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation affects cell physiology and contributes to pathogenesis. To maintain homeostasis of cellular O-GlcNAcylation, there exists feedback regulation of OGT and OGA expression responding to fluctuations of O-GlcNAc levels; yet, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we investigated the O-GlcNAc-feedback regulation of OGT and OGA expression in lung cancer cells. Results suggest that, upon alterations in O-GlcNAcylation, the regulation of OGA expression occurs at the mRNA level and likely involves epigenetic mechanisms, while modulation of OGT expression is through translation control. Further analyses revealed that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) contributes to the downregulation of OGT induced by hyper-O-GlcNAcylation; the S5A/S6A O-GlcNAcylation-site mutant of 4E-BP1 cannot support this regulation, suggesting an important role of O-GlcNAcylation. The results provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms through which cells may fine-tune intracellular O-GlcNAc levels to maintain homeostasis.
Ou W, Liang Y, Qin Y, Wu W, Xie M, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Ji L, Yu H, Li T.
Hypoxic acclimation improves cardiac redox homeostasis and protects heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury through upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation.
Abstract: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is detrimental to cardiovascular system. Alteration in glucose metabolism has been recognized as an important adaptive response under hypoxic conditions. However, the biological benefits underlying this metabolic phenotype remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the impact of hypoxic acclimation (HA) on cardiac I/R injury and the antioxidative mechanism(s). Male adult mice were acclimated in a hypoxic chamber (10% oxygen [O2]) for 8 h/day for 14 days, and then subjected to cardiac I/R injury by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min and reperfusion for 24 h or 7 days. Our results showed that HA attenuated oxidative stress and reduced infarct size in the I/R hearts. This cardioprotective effect is coupled with an elevation of protein O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification partially due to inflammatory stimulation. Hyperglycosylation activated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in an upregulation of NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSG couples and enhancement of redox homeostasis in the heart. Pharmacological suppression of O-GlcNAcylation totally abolished the influence of HA on the G6PDH activity, redox balance and post-I/R damage in the hearts and cultured cardiomyocytes, whereby augmentation of O-GlcNAcylation further enhanced the benefits, suggesting a central role of O-GlcNAcylation in HA-initiated antioxidative and cardioprotective effects. These findings, therefore, identified HA as a promising anti-I/R strategy for the heart and proposed O-GlcNAc modification of G6PDH as a therapeutic target in ischemic heart disease.
Aulak KS, Barnes JW, Tian L, Mellor NE, Haque MM, Willard B, Li L, Comhair SC, Stuehr DJ, Dweik RA.
Specific O-GlcNAc modification at Ser-615 modulates eNOS function.
Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and devastating disease characterized by vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation leading to a narrowing of the vessels in the lung. The increased resistance in the lung and the higher pressures generated result in right heart failure. Nitric Oxide (NO) deficiency is considered a hallmark of IPAH and altered function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), decreases NO production. We recently demonstrated that glucose dysregulation results in augmented protein serine/threonine hydroxyl-linked N-Acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification in IPAH. In diabetes, dysregulated glucose metabolism has been shown to regulate eNOS function through inhibition of Ser-1177 phosphorylation. However, the link between O-GlcNAc and eNOS function remains unknown. Here we show that increased protein O-GlcNAc occurs on eNOS in PAH and Ser-615 appears to be a novel site of O-GlcNAc modification resulting in reduced eNOS dimerization. Functional characterization of Ser-615 demonstrated the importance of this residue on the regulation of eNOS activity through control of Ser-1177 phosphorylation. Here we demonstrate a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism of eNOS whereby the O-GlcNAc modification of Ser-615 results in reduced eNOS activity and endothelial dysfunction under conditions of glucose dysregulation.
Zhao M, Ren K, Xiong X, Cheng M, Zhang Z, Huang Z, Han X, Yang X, Alejandro EU, Ruan HB.
Protein O-GlcNAc Modification Links Dietary and Gut Microbial Cues to the Differentiation of Enteroendocrine L Cells.
Abstract: Intestinal L cells regulate a wide range of metabolic processes, and L-cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. However, it is incompletely understood how luminal signals are integrated to control the development of L cells. Here we show that food availability and gut microbiota-produced short-chain fatty acids control the posttranslational modification on intracellular proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in intestinal epithelial cells. Via FOXO1 O-GlcNAcylation, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) suppresses expression of the lineage-specifying transcription factor Neurogenin 3 and, thus, L cell differentiation from enteroendocrine progenitors. Intestinal epithelial ablation of OGT in mice not only causes L cell hyperplasia and increased secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) but also disrupts gut microbial compositions, which notably contributes to decreased weight gain and improved glycemic control. Our results identify intestinal epithelial O-GlcNAc signaling as a brake on L cell development and function in response to nutritional and microbial cues.
Cao H, Hu Y, Zhu X, Yao N, Gu J, Wang Y, Zhu W.
O-GlcNAc transferase affects the signal transduction of β1 adrenoceptor in adult rat cardiomyocytes by increasing the O-GlcNAcylation of β1 adrenoceptor.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications2020
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation was first found by Torres and Hart in monocytes. It is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). O-GlcNAcylation is increased in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients and it has been reported that OGT plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac gene transcription, cell cycle and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of OGT on signal transduction and function of β1-adrenoceptor (β1AR) in adult rat cardiomyocytes. We found that after overexpressing OGT by adenovirus vector in adult rat cardiomyocytes, cAMP formation and phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLB) at Ser16 (p16-PLB) were decreased under isoprenaline (ISO) stimulation. Over expression of OGT increased the intracellular [Ca2+]i and deteriorated the death of cardiomyocytes induced by prolonged stimulation with ISO. β1-adrenoceptor was overexpressed using a plasmid vector and then co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) followed by Western blot was employed to define the O-GlcNAcylation of β1-adrenoceptor. The results showed that O-GlcNAcylation of β1-adrenoceptor was increased in OGT overexpressed cells, and there was no significant change in the formation of cAMP and phosphorylation of PLB after β1-adrenoceptor was blocked by CGP20712A. Given that OGT affects the signal transduction of β1-adrenoceptor in adult rat cardiomyocytes by increasing the O-GlcNAcylation of β1-adrenoceptor, the mechanism revealed in this study indicates that OGT and β1AR may be therapeutic targets in patients undergoing diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Kim YJ, Kang MJ, Kim E, Kweon TH, Park YS, Ji S, Yang WH, Yi EC, Cho JW.
O-GlcNAc stabilizes SMAD4 by inhibiting GSK-3β-mediated proteasomal degradation.
Abstract: O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification which occurs on the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. It has been reported that the presence of this single sugar motif regulates various biological events by altering the fate of target proteins, such as their function, localization, and degradation. This study identified SMAD4 as a novel O-GlcNAc-modified protein. SMAD4 is a component of the SMAD transcriptional complex, a major regulator of the signaling pathway for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). TGF-β is a powerful promoter of cancer EMT and metastasis. This study showed that the amount of SMAD4 proteins changes according to cellular O-GlcNAc levels in human lung cancer cells. This observation was made based on the prolonged half-life of SMAD4 proteins. The mechanism behind this interaction was that O-GlcNAc impeded interactions between SMAD4 and GSK-3β which promote proteasomal degradation of SMAD4. In addition, O-GlcNAc modification on SMAD4 Thr63 was responsible for stabilization. As a result, defects in O-GlcNAcylation on SMAD4 Thr63 attenuated the reporter activity of luciferase, the TGF-β-responsive SMAD binding element (SBE). This study's findings imply that cellular O-GlcNAc may regulate the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway by stabilizing SMAD4.
Liu Y, Chen Q, Zhang N, Zhang K, Dou T, Cao Y, Liu Y, Li K, Hao X, Xie X, Li W, Ren Y, Zhang J.
Proteomic profiling and genome-wide mapping of O-GlcNAc chromatin-associated proteins reveal an O-GlcNAc-regulated genotoxic stress response.
Abstract: O-GlcNAc modification plays critical roles in regulating the stress response program and cellular homeostasis. However, systematic and multi-omics studies on the O-GlcNAc regulated mechanism have been limited. Here, comprehensive data are obtained by a chemical reporter-based method to survey O-GlcNAc function in human breast cancer cells stimulated with the genotoxic agent adriamycin. We identify 875 genotoxic stress-induced O-GlcNAc chromatin-associated proteins (OCPs), including 88 O-GlcNAc chromatin-associated transcription factors and cofactors (OCTFs), subsequently map their genomic loci, and construct a comprehensive transcriptional reprogramming network. Notably, genotoxicity-induced O-GlcNAc enhances the genome-wide interactions of OCPs with chromatin. The dynamic binding switch of hundreds of OCPs from enhancers to promoters is identified as a crucial feature in the specific transcriptional activation of genes involved in the adaptation of cancer cells to genotoxic stress. The OCTF nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-1 (NRF1) is found to be a key response regulator in O-GlcNAc-modulated cellular homeostasis. These results provide a valuable clue suggesting that OCPs act as stress sensors by regulating the expression of various genes to protect cancer cells from genotoxic stress.