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Mathew MP, Abramowitz LK, Donaldson JG, Hanover JA. Nutrient-responsive O-GlcNAcylation dynamically modulates the secretion of glycan-binding protein galectin 3. The Journal of biological chemistry 2022 298(3) 35183508
Endomembrane glycosylation and cytoplasmic O-GlcNAcylation each play essential roles in nutrient sensing, and characteristic changes in glycan patterns have been described in disease states such as diabetes and cancer. These changes in glycosylation have important functional roles and can drive disease progression. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying how these signals are integrated and transduced into biological effects. Galectins are proteins that bind glycans and that are secreted by a poorly characterized nonclassical secretory mechanism. Once outside the cell, galectins bind to the terminal galactose residues of cell surface glycans and modulate numerous extracellular functions, such as clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Originating in the cytoplasm, galectins are predicted substrates for O-GlcNAc addition and removal; and as we have shown, galectin 3 is a substrate for O-GlcNAc transferase. In this study, we also show that galectin 3 secretion is sensitive to changes in O-GlcNAc levels. We determined using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting that there is a significant difference in O-GlcNAcylation status between cytoplasmic and secreted galectin 3. We observed dramatic alterations in galectin 3 secretion in response to nutrient conditions, which were dependent on dynamic O-GlcNAcylation. Importantly, we showed that these O-GlcNAc-driven alterations in galectin 3 secretion also facilitated changes in CIE. These results indicate that dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of galectin 3 plays a role in modulating its secretion and can tune its function in transducing nutrient-sensing information coded in cell surface glycosylation into biological effects.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
Species: Homo sapiens
Abramowitz LK, Hanover JA. Chronically Elevated O-GlcNAcylation Limits Nitric Oxide Production and Deregulates Specific Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines. Frontiers in immunology 2022 13 35432339
Inflammation is the immune response to harmful stimuli, including pathogens, damaged cells and toxic compounds. However, uncontrolled inflammation can be detrimental and contribute to numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, such as insulin resistance. At the forefront of this response are macrophages, which sense the local microenvironment to respond with a pro-inflammatory, M1-polarized phenotype, or anti-inflammatory, M2-polarized phenotype. M1 macrophages upregulate factors like pro-inflammatory cytokines, to promote inflammatory signaling, and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), to produce nitric oxide (NO). The generated NO can kill microorganisms to protect the body, but also signal back to the macrophage to limit pro-inflammatory cytokine production to maintain macrophage homeostasis. Thus, the tight regulation of iNOS in macrophages is critical for the immune system. Here, we investigated how elevation of the nutrient-sensitive posttranslational modification, O-GlcNAc, impacts M1 polarized macrophages. We identified increased gene expression of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-1β, Il-12) when O-GlcNAc cycling was blocked. We further uncovered an interaction between O-GlcNAc and iNOS, with iNOS being an OGT target in vitro. Analysis of M1 polarized bone marrow derived macrophages deficient in the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAcase (OGA), revealed decreased iNOS activity as measured by a reduction in NO release. Further, elevated O-GlcNAc acted on Il-6 expression through the iNOS pathway, as iNOS inhibitior L-NIL raised wildtype Il-6 expression similar to OGA deficient cells but had no further effect on the hyper-O-GlcNAcylated cells. Thus O-GlcNAc contributes to macrophage homeostasis through modulation of iNOS activity.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
Species: Mus musculus
Akinbiyi EO, Abramowitz LK, Bauer BL, Stoll MSK, Hoppel CL, Hsiao CP, Hanover JA, Mears JA. Blocked O-GlcNAc cycling alters mitochondrial morphology, function, and mass. Scientific reports 2021 11(1) 34764359
O-GlcNAcylation is a prevalent form of glycosylation that regulates proteins within the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondria. The O-GlcNAc modification can affect protein cellular localization, function, and signaling interactions. The specific impact of O-GlcNAcylation on mitochondrial morphology and function has been elusive. In this manuscript, the role of O-GlcNAcylation on mitochondrial fission, oxidative phosphorylation (Oxphos), and the activity of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes were evaluated. In a cellular environment with hyper O-GlcNAcylation due to the deletion of O-GlcNAcase (OGA), mitochondria showed a dramatic reduction in size and a corresponding increase in number and total mitochondrial mass. Because of the increased mitochondrial content, OGA knockout cells exhibited comparable coupled mitochondrial Oxphos and ATP levels when compared to WT cells. However, we observed reduced protein levels for complex I and II when comparing normalized mitochondrial content and reduced linked activity for complexes I and III when examining individual ETC complex activities. In assessing mitochondrial fission, we observed increased amounts of O-GlcNAcylated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in cells genetically null for OGA and in glioblastoma cells. Individual regions of Drp1 were evaluated for O-GlcNAc modifications, and we found that this post-translational modification (PTM) was not limited to the previously characterized residues in the variable domain (VD). Additional modification sites are predicted in the GTPase domain, which may influence enzyme activity. Collectively, these results highlight the impact of O-GlcNAcylation on mitochondrial dynamics and ETC function and mimic the changes that may occur during glucose toxicity from hyperglycemia.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
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