Bi Y, Deng Z, Ni W, Shrestha R, Savage D, Hartwig T, Patil S, Hong SH, Zhang Z, Oses-Prieto JA, Li KH, Quail PH, Burlingame AL, Xu SL, Wang ZY.
Arabidopsis ACINUS is O-glycosylated and regulates transcription and alternative splicing of regulators of reproductive transitions.
Abstract: O-GlcNAc modification plays important roles in metabolic regulation of cellular status. Two homologs of O-GlcNAc transferase, SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY), which have O-GlcNAc and O-fucosyl transferase activities, respectively, are essential in Arabidopsis but have largely unknown cellular targets. Here we show that AtACINUS is O-GlcNAcylated and O-fucosylated and mediates regulation of transcription, alternative splicing (AS), and developmental transitions. Knocking-out both AtACINUS and its distant paralog AtPININ causes severe growth defects including dwarfism, delayed seed germination and flowering, and abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity. Transcriptomic and protein-DNA/RNA interaction analyses demonstrate that AtACINUS represses transcription of the flowering repressor FLC and mediates AS of ABH1 and HAB1, two negative regulators of ABA signaling. Proteomic analyses show AtACINUS's O-GlcNAcylation, O-fucosylation, and association with splicing factors, chromatin remodelers, and transcriptional regulators. Some AtACINUS/AtPININ-dependent AS events are altered in the sec and spy mutants, demonstrating a function of O-glycosylation in regulating alternative RNA splicing.
White CW 3rd, Fan X, Maynard JC, Wheatley EG, Bieri G, Couthouis J, Burlingame AL, Villeda SA.
Age-related loss of neural stem cell O-GlcNAc promotes a glial fate switch through STAT3 activation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2020
Abstract: Increased neural stem cell (NSC) quiescence is a major determinant of age-related regenerative decline in the adult hippocampus. However, a coextensive model has been proposed in which division-coupled conversion of NSCs into differentiated astrocytes restrict the stem cell pool with age. Here we report that age-related loss of the posttranslational modification, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), in NSCs promotes a glial fate switch. We detect an age-dependent decrease in NSC O-GlcNAc levels coincident with decreased neurogenesis and increased gliogenesis in the mature hippocampus. Mimicking an age-related loss of NSC O-GlcNAcylation in young mice reduces neurogenesis, increases astrocyte differentiation, and impairs associated cognitive function. Using RNA-sequencing of primary NSCs following decreased O-GlcNAcylation, we detected changes in the STAT3 signaling pathway indicative of glial differentiation. Moreover, using O-GlcNAc-specific mass spectrometry analysis of the aging hippocampus, together with an in vitro site-directed mutagenesis approach, we identify loss of STAT3 O-GlcNAc at Threonine 717 as a driver of astrocyte differentiation. Our data identify the posttranslational modification, O-GlcNAc, as a key molecular regulator of regenerative decline underlying an age-related NSC fate switch.
Liu B, Salgado OC, Singh S, Hippen KL, Maynard JC, Burlingame AL, Ball LE, Blazar BR, Farrar MA, Hogquist KA, Ruan HB.
The lineage stability and suppressive program of regulatory T cells require protein O-GlcNAcylation.
Abstract: Regulatory T (Treg) cells control self-tolerance, inflammatory responses and tissue homeostasis. In mature Treg cells, continued expression of FOXP3 maintains lineage identity, while T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and interleukin-2 (IL-2)/STAT5 activation support the suppressive effector function of Treg cells, but how these regulators synergize to control Treg cell homeostasis and function remains unclear. Here we show that TCR-activated posttranslational modification by O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) stabilizes FOXP3 and activates STAT5, thus integrating these critical signaling pathways. O-GlcNAc-deficient Treg cells develop normally but display modestly reduced FOXP3 expression, strongly impaired lineage stability and effector function, and ultimately fatal autoimmunity in mice. Moreover, deficiency in protein O-GlcNAcylation attenuates IL-2/STAT5 signaling, while overexpression of a constitutively active form of STAT5 partially ameliorates Treg cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation in O-GlcNAc deficient mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that protein O-GlcNAcylation is essential for lineage stability and effector function in Treg cells.
Kim S, Maynard JC, Strickland A, Burlingame AL, Milbrandt J.
Schwann cell O-GlcNAcylation promotes peripheral nerve remyelination via attenuation of the AP-1 transcription factor JUN.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2018
Abstract: Schwann cells (SCs), the glia of the peripheral nervous system, play an essential role in nerve regeneration. Upon nerve injury, SCs are reprogrammed into unique "repair SCs," and these cells remove degenerating axons/myelin debris, promote axonal regrowth, and ultimately remyelinate regenerating axons. The AP-1 transcription factor JUN is promptly induced in SCs upon nerve injury and potently mediates this injury-induced SC plasticity; however, the regulation of these JUN-dependent SC injury responses is unclear. Previously, we produced mice with a SC-specific deletion of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). This enzyme catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation, a posttranslational modification that is influenced by the cellular metabolic state. Mice lacking OGT in SCs develop a progressive demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. Here, we investigated the nerve repair process in OGT-SCKO mutant mice and found that the remyelination of regenerating axons is severely impaired. Gene expression profiling of OGT-SCKO SCs revealed that the JUN-dependent SC injury program was elevated in the absence of injury and failed to shut down at the appropriate time after injury. This aberrant JUN activity results in abnormalities in repair SC function and redifferentiation and prevents the timely remyelination. This aberrant nerve injury response is normalized in OGT-SCKO mice with reduced Jun gene dosage in SCs. Mechanistically, OGT O-GlcNAcylates JUN at multiple sites, which then leads to an attenuation of AP-1 transcriptional activity. Together, these results highlight the metabolic oversight of the nerve injury response via the regulation of JUN activity by O-GlcNAcylation, a pathway that could be important in the neuropathy associated with diabetes and aging.
Xu SL, Chalkley RJ, Maynard JC, Wang W, Ni W, Jiang X, Shin K, Cheng L, Savage D, Hühmer AF, Burlingame AL, Wang ZY.
Proteomic analysis reveals O-GlcNAc modification on proteins with key regulatory functions in Arabidopsis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2017
Abstract: Genetic studies have shown essential functions of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification in plants. However, the proteins and sites subject to this posttranslational modification are largely unknown. Here, we report a large-scale proteomic identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and sites in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana Using lectin weak affinity chromatography to enrich modified peptides, followed by mass spectrometry, we identified 971 O-GlcNAc-modified peptides belonging to 262 proteins. The modified proteins are involved in cellular regulatory processes, including transcription, translation, epigenetic gene regulation, and signal transduction. Many proteins have functions in developmental and physiological processes specific to plants, such as hormone responses and flower development. Mass spectrometric analysis of phosphopeptides from the same samples showed that a large number of peptides could be modified by either O-GlcNAcylation or phosphorylation, but cooccurrence of the two modifications in the same peptide molecule was rare. Our study generates a snapshot of the O-GlcNAc modification landscape in plants, indicating functions in many cellular regulation pathways and providing a powerful resource for further dissecting these functions at the molecular level.
Lewis BA, Burlingame AL, Myers SA.
Human RNA Polymerase II Promoter Recruitment in Vitro Is Regulated by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase (OGT).
The Journal of biological chemistry2016
Abstract: Although the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain was described 20 years ago, the function of this RNA polymerase II (pol II) species is not known. We show here that an O-GlcNAcylated pol II species (pol IIγ) exists on promoters in vitro Inhibition of O-GlcNAc-transferase activity and O-GlcNAcylation prevents pol II entry into the promoter, and O-GlcNAc removal from pol II is an ATP-dependent step during initiation. These data indicate that O-GlcNAc-transferase activity is essential for RNA pol II promoter recruitment and that pol II goes through a cycling of O-GlcNAcylation at the promoter. Mass spectrometry shows that serine residues 2 and 5 of the pol II C-terminal domain are O-GlcNAcylated, suggesting an overlap with the transcription factor IIH (TFIIH)-dependent serine 5 phosphorylation events during initiation and P-TEFb (positive transcriptional elongation factor b) events during elongation. These data provide unexpected and important insights into the role of a previously ill-defined species of RNA polymerase II in regulating transcription.
Myers SA, Peddada S, Chatterjee N, Friedrich T, Tomoda K, Krings G, Thomas S, Maynard J, Broeker M, Thomson M, Pollard K, Yamanaka S, Burlingame AL, Panning B.
SOX2 O-GlcNAcylation alters its protein-protein interactions and genomic occupancy to modulate gene expression in pluripotent cells.
Abstract: The transcription factor SOX2 is central in establishing and maintaining pluripotency. The processes that modulate SOX2 activity to promote pluripotency are not well understood. Here, we show SOX2 is O-GlcNAc modified in its transactivation domain during reprogramming and in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Upon induction of differentiation SOX2 O-GlcNAcylation at serine 248 is decreased. Replacing wild type with an O-GlcNAc-deficient SOX2 (S248A) increases reprogramming efficiency. ESCs with O-GlcNAc-deficient SOX2 exhibit alterations in gene expression. This change correlates with altered protein-protein interactions and genomic occupancy of the O-GlcNAc-deficient SOX2 compared to wild type. In addition, SOX2 O-GlcNAcylation impairs the SOX2-PARP1 interaction, which has been shown to regulate ESC self-renewal. These findings show that SOX2 activity is modulated by O-GlcNAc, and provide a novel regulatory mechanism for this crucial pluripotency transcription factor.
Morris M, Knudsen GM, Maeda S, Trinidad JC, Ioanoviciu A, Burlingame AL, Mucke L.
Tau post-translational modifications in wild-type and human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.
Abstract: The microtubule-associated protein tau has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Reducing tau levels ameliorates AD-related synaptic, network, and behavioral abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). We used mass spectrometry to characterize the post-translational modification of endogenous tau isolated from wild-type and hAPP mice. We identified seven types of tau modifications at 63 sites in wild-type mice. Wild-type and hAPP mice had similar modifications, supporting the hypothesis that neuronal dysfunction in hAPP mice is enabled by physiological forms of tau. Our findings provide clear evidence for acetylation and ubiquitination of the same lysine residues; some sites were also targeted by lysine methylation. Our findings refute the hypothesis of extensive O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of endogenous tau. The complex post-translational modification of physiological tau suggests that tau is regulated by diverse mechanisms.
Myers SA, Daou S, Affar el B, Burlingame A.
Electron transfer dissociation (ETD): the mass spectrometric breakthrough essential for O-GlcNAc protein site assignments-a study of the O-GlcNAcylated protein host cell factor C1.
Abstract: The development of electron-based, unimolecular dissociation MS, i.e. electron capture and electron transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD, respectively), has greatly increased the speed and reliability of labile PTM site assignment. The field of intracellular O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) signaling has especially advanced with the advent of ETD MS. Only within the last five years have proteomic-scale experiments utilizing ETD allowed the assignment of hundreds of O-GlcNAc sites within cells and subcellular structures. Our ability to identify and unambiguously assign the site of O-GlcNAc modifications using ETD is rapidly increasing our understanding of this regulatory glycosylation and its potential interaction with other PTMs. Here, we discuss the advantages of using ETD, complimented with collisional-activation MS, in a study of the extensively O-GlcNAcylated protein Host Cell Factor C1 (HCF-1). HCF-1 is a transcriptional coregulator that forms a stable complex with O-GlcNAc transferase and controls cell cycle progression. ETD, along with higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) MS, was employed to assign the PTMs of the HCF-1 protein isolated from HEK293T cells. These include 19 sites of O-GlcNAcylation, two sites of phosphorylation, and two sites bearing dimethylarginine, and showcase the residue-specific, PTM complexity of this regulator of cell proliferation.
Kaasik K, Kivimäe S, Allen JJ, Chalkley RJ, Huang Y, Baer K, Kissel H, Burlingame AL, Shokat KM, Ptáček LJ, Fu YH.
Glucose sensor O-GlcNAcylation coordinates with phosphorylation to regulate circadian clock.
Abstract: Posttranslational modifications play central roles in myriad biological pathways including circadian regulation. We employed a circadian proteomic approach to demonstrate that circadian timing of phosphorylation is a critical factor in regulating complex GSK3β-dependent pathways and identified O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) as a substrate of GSK3β. Interestingly, OGT activity is regulated by GSK3β; hence, OGT and GSK3β exhibit reciprocal regulation. Modulating O-GlcNAcylation levels alter circadian period length in both mice and Drosophila; conversely, protein O-GlcNAcylation is circadianly regulated. Central clock proteins, Clock and Period, are reversibly modified by O-GlcNAcylation to regulate their transcriptional activities. In addition, O-GlcNAcylation of a region in PER2 known to regulate human sleep phase (S662-S674) competes with phosphorylation of this region, and this interplay is at least partly mediated by glucose levels. Together, these results indicate that O-GlcNAcylation serves as a metabolic sensor for clock regulation and works coordinately with phosphorylation to fine-tune circadian clock.
Trinidad JC, Barkan DT, Gulledge BF, Thalhammer A, Sali A, Schoepfer R, Burlingame AL.
Global identification and characterization of both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation at the murine synapse.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2012
Abstract: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic, reversible monosaccharide modifier of serine and threonine residues on intracellular protein domains. Crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation has been hypothesized. Here, we identified over 1750 and 16,500 sites of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation from murine synaptosomes, respectively. In total, 135 (7%) of all O-GlcNAcylation sites were also found to be sites of phosphorylation. Although many proteins were extensively phosphorylated and minimally O-GlcNAcylated, proteins found to be extensively O-GlcNAcylated were almost always phosphorylated to a similar or greater extent, indicating the O-GlcNAcylation system is specifically targeting a subset of the proteome that is also phosphorylated. Both PTMs usually occur on disordered regions of protein structure, within which, the location of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation is virtually random with respect to each other, suggesting that negative crosstalk at the structural level is not a common phenomenon. As a class, protein kinases are found to be more extensively O-GlcNAcylated than proteins in general, indicating the potential for crosstalk of phosphorylation with O-GlcNAcylation via regulation of enzymatic activity.
Myers SA, Panning B, Burlingame AL.
Polycomb repressive complex 2 is necessary for the normal site-specific O-GlcNAc distribution in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2011
Abstract: The monosaccharide addition of an N-acetylglucosamine to serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytosolic proteins (O-GlcNAc) is a posttranslational modification emerging as a general regulator of many cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell division, and transcription. The sole mouse O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is essential for embryonic development. To understand the role of OGT in mouse development better, we mapped sites of O-GlcNAcylation of nuclear proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here, we unambiguously identify over 60 nuclear proteins as O-GlcNAcylated, several of which are crucial for mouse ESC cell maintenance. Furthermore, we extend the connection between OGT and Polycomb group genes from flies to mammals, showing Polycomb repressive complex 2 is necessary to maintain normal levels of OGT and for the correct cellular distribution of O-GlcNAc. Together, these results provide insight into how OGT may regulate transcription in early development, possibly by modifying proteins important to maintain the ESC transcriptional repertoire.
Chalkley RJ, Thalhammer A, Schoepfer R, Burlingame AL.
Identification of protein O-GlcNAcylation sites using electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry on native peptides.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2009
Abstract: Protein O-GlcNAcylation occurs in all animals and plants and is implicated in modulation of a wide range of cytosolic and nuclear protein functions, including gene silencing, nutrient and stress sensing, phosphorylation signaling, and diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's. The limiting factor impeding rapid progress in deciphering the biological functions of protein O-GlcNAcylation has been the inability to easily identify exact residues of modification. We describe a robust, high-sensitivity strategy able to assign O-GlcNAcylation sites of native modified peptides using electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. We have studied the murine postsynaptic density pseudoorganelle and report the assignment of 58 modification sites from a single experiment--significantly increasing the number of sites known in the literature. Components of several repressor complexes, such as NCoR1, polyhomeotic-like protein3, and EMSY, are modified. In addition, 28 O-GlcNAc sites were found on the protein Bassoon, effectively matching the number of phosphorylation sites reported previously on this protein. This finding suggests that on certain proteins, O-GlcNAcylation may be as extensive and important as phosphorylation in regulating protein function. Three of the newly discovered O-GlcNAc sites on Bassoon have previously been reported as phosphorylation sites, highlighting the interplay of the modifications. Surprisingly, several peptides with GlcNAc modifications on asparagines within the N-X-S/T consensus sequence were also observed from membrane protein extracellular domains. This powerful strategy fulfills a long-standing need in the biological community by facilitating modification site identifications that will accelerate understanding of the biological significance of this elusive regulatory posttranslational modification.
Vosseller K, Trinidad JC, Chalkley RJ, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Lynn AJ, Snedecor JO, Guan S, Medzihradszky KF, Maltby DA, Schoepfer R, Burlingame AL.
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine proteomics of postsynaptic density preparations using lectin weak affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2006
Abstract: O-GlcNAc is a widespread dynamic carbohydrate modification of cytosolic and nuclear proteins with features analogous to phosphorylation. O-GlcNAc acts critically in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein degradation, and regulation of gene expression. However, the study of its specific regulatory functions has been limited by difficulties in mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification. We report methods for direct enrichment and identification of in vivo O-GlcNAc-modified peptides through lectin weak affinity chromatography (LWAC) and mass spectrometry. The effectiveness of this strategy on complex peptide mixtures was demonstrated through enrichment of 145 unique O-GlcNAc-modified peptides from a postsynaptic density preparation. 65 of these O-GlcNAc-modified peptides were sequenced and belonged to proteins with diverse functions in synaptic transmission. Beta-elimination/Michael addition, MS(3) on O-GlcNAc neutral loss ions, and electron capture dissociation were shown to facilitate analysis of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides/sites from lectin weak affinity chromatography enriched postsynaptic density samples. Bassoon and Piccolo, proteins critical to synapse assembly and vesicle docking, were extensively modified by O-GlcNAc. In some cases, O-GlcNAc was mapped to peptides previously identified as phosphorylated, indicating potential interplay between these modifications. Shared substrate amino acid context was apparent in subsets of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, including "PVST" and a novel "TTA" motif (two hydroxyl-containing amino acids adjacent to an alanine). The results suggest specific roles for O-GlcNAc modification in synaptic transmission, establish a basis for site-specific regulatory studies, and provide methods that will facilitate O-GlcNAc proteome analysis across a wide variety of cells and tissues.
Vosseller K, Hansen KC, Chalkley RJ, Trinidad JC, Wells L, Hart GW, Burlingame AL.
Quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications through stable isotope labeling with dithiothreitol.
Abstract: While phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc (cytoplasmic and nuclear glycosylation) are linked to normal and pathological changes in cell states, these post-translational modifications have been difficult to analyze in proteomic studies. We describe advances in beta-elimination / Michael addition-based approaches which allow for mass spectrometry-based identification and comparative quantification of O-phosphate or O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, as well as cysteine-containing peptides for expression analysis. The method (BEMAD) involves differential isotopic labeling through Michael addition with normal dithiothreitol (DTT) (d0) or deuterated DTT (d6), and enrichment of these peptides by thiol chromatography. BEMAD was comparable to isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT; a commercially available differential isotopic quantification technique) in protein expression analysis, but also provided the identity and relative amounts of both O-phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification sites. Specificity of O-phosphate vs. O-GlcNAc mapping is achieved through coupling enzymatic dephosphorylation or O-GlcNAc hydrolysis with differential isotopic labeling. Blocking of cysteine labeling by prior oxidation of a cytosolic lysate from mouse brain allowed specific targeting of serine / threonine post-translational modifications as demonstrated through identification of 21 phosphorylation sites (5 previously reported) in a single mass spectrometry analysis. These results demonstate BEMAD is suitable for large-scale quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications.
Chalkley RJ, Burlingame AL.
Identification of novel sites of O-N-acetylglucosamine modification of serum response factor using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2003
Abstract: The addition of a single N-acetylglucosamine moiety O-linked to serine and threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins is a widespread post-translational modification. The conventional method for detecting and locating sites of modification is through a multistep radioactivity-based approach. We have recently shown that sites of O-GlcNAc modification can be determined using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Chalkley, R. J., and Burlingame, A. L. (2001) Identification of GlcNAcylation sites of peptides and alpha-crystallin using Q-TOF mass spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 12, 1106-1113). In this work utilization of this new approach has revealed previously undetected sites of O-GlcNAc modification of the transcription factor serum response factor.