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Zhang Z, Huang Z, Awad M, Elsalanty M, Cray J, Ball LE, Maynard JC, Burlingame AL, Zeng H, Mansky KC, Ruan HB. O-GlcNAc glycosylation orchestrates fate decision and niche function of bone marrow stromal progenitors. eLife 2023 12 36861967
Abstract:
In mammals, interactions between the bone marrow (BM) stroma and hematopoietic progenitors contribute to bone-BM homeostasis. Perinatal bone growth and ossification provide a microenvironment for the transition to definitive hematopoiesis; however, mechanisms and interactions orchestrating the development of skeletal and hematopoietic systems remain largely unknown. Here, we establish intracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification as a posttranslational switch that dictates the differentiation fate and niche function of early BM stromal cells (BMSCs). By modifying and activating RUNX2, O-GlcNAcylation promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and stromal IL-7 expression to support lymphopoiesis. In contrast, C/EBPβ-dependent marrow adipogenesis and expression of myelopoietic stem cell factor (SCF) is inhibited by O-GlcNAcylation. Ablating O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in BMSCs leads to impaired bone formation, increased marrow adiposity, as well as defective B-cell lymphopoiesis and myeloid overproduction in mice. Thus, the balance of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs is determined by reciprocal O-GlcNAc regulation of transcription factors, which simultaneously shapes the hematopoietic niche.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
RUNX2
Species: Homo sapiens
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Zhao M, Ren K, Xiong X, Xin Y, Zou Y, Maynard JC, Kim A, Battist AP, Koneripalli N, Wang Y, Chen Q, Xin R, Yang C, Huang R, Yu J, Huang Z, Zhang Z, Wang H, Wang D, Xiao Y, Salgado OC, Jarjour NN, Hogquist KA, Revelo XS, Burlingame AL, Gao X, von Moltke J, Lin Z, Ruan HB. Epithelial STAT6 O-GlcNAcylation drives a concerted anti-helminth alarmin response dependent on tuft cell hyperplasia and Gasdermin C. Immunity 2022 55(4) 35385697
Abstract:
The epithelium is an integral component of mucosal barrier and host immunity. Following helminth infection, the intestinal epithelial cells secrete "alarmin" cytokines, such as interleukin-25 (IL-25) and IL-33, to initiate the type 2 immune responses for helminth expulsion and tolerance. However, it is unknown how helminth infection and the resulting cytokine milieu drive epithelial remodeling and orchestrate alarmin secretion. Here, we report that epithelial O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification was induced upon helminth infections. By modifying and activating the transcription factor STAT6, O-GlcNAc transferase promoted the transcription of lineage-defining Pou2f3 in tuft cell differentiation and IL-25 production. Meanwhile, STAT6 O-GlcNAcylation activated the expression of Gsdmc family genes. The membrane pore formed by GSDMC facilitated the unconventional secretion of IL-33. GSDMC-mediated IL-33 secretion was indispensable for effective anti-helminth immunity and contributed to induced intestinal inflammation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation can be harnessed for future treatment of type 2 inflammation-associated human diseases.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
STAT6
Species: Mus musculus
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Bi Y, Deng Z, Ni W, Shrestha R, Savage D, Hartwig T, Patil S, Hong SH, Zhang Z, Oses-Prieto JA, Li KH, Quail PH, Burlingame AL, Xu SL, Wang ZY. Arabidopsis ACINUS is O-glycosylated and regulates transcription and alternative splicing of regulators of reproductive transitions. Nature communications 2021 12(1) 33574257
Abstract:
O-GlcNAc modification plays important roles in metabolic regulation of cellular status. Two homologs of O-GlcNAc transferase, SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY), which have O-GlcNAc and O-fucosyl transferase activities, respectively, are essential in Arabidopsis but have largely unknown cellular targets. Here we show that AtACINUS is O-GlcNAcylated and O-fucosylated and mediates regulation of transcription, alternative splicing (AS), and developmental transitions. Knocking-out both AtACINUS and its distant paralog AtPININ causes severe growth defects including dwarfism, delayed seed germination and flowering, and abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity. Transcriptomic and protein-DNA/RNA interaction analyses demonstrate that AtACINUS represses transcription of the flowering repressor FLC and mediates AS of ABH1 and HAB1, two negative regulators of ABA signaling. Proteomic analyses show AtACINUS's O-GlcNAcylation, O-fucosylation, and association with splicing factors, chromatin remodelers, and transcriptional regulators. Some AtACINUS/AtPININ-dependent AS events are altered in the sec and spy mutants, demonstrating a function of O-glycosylation in regulating alternative RNA splicing.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A0A384LHA9
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White CW 3rd, Fan X, Maynard JC, Wheatley EG, Bieri G, Couthouis J, Burlingame AL, Villeda SA. Age-related loss of neural stem cell O-GlcNAc promotes a glial fate switch through STAT3 activation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2020 117(36) 32848054
Abstract:
Increased neural stem cell (NSC) quiescence is a major determinant of age-related regenerative decline in the adult hippocampus. However, a coextensive model has been proposed in which division-coupled conversion of NSCs into differentiated astrocytes restrict the stem cell pool with age. Here we report that age-related loss of the posttranslational modification, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), in NSCs promotes a glial fate switch. We detect an age-dependent decrease in NSC O-GlcNAc levels coincident with decreased neurogenesis and increased gliogenesis in the mature hippocampus. Mimicking an age-related loss of NSC O-GlcNAcylation in young mice reduces neurogenesis, increases astrocyte differentiation, and impairs associated cognitive function. Using RNA-sequencing of primary NSCs following decreased O-GlcNAcylation, we detected changes in the STAT3 signaling pathway indicative of glial differentiation. Moreover, using O-GlcNAc-specific mass spectrometry analysis of the aging hippocampus, together with an in vitro site-directed mutagenesis approach, we identify loss of STAT3 O-GlcNAc at Threonine 717 as a driver of astrocyte differentiation. Our data identify the posttranslational modification, O-GlcNAc, as a key molecular regulator of regenerative decline underlying an age-related NSC fate switch.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
STAT3
Species: Mus musculus
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