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Brahma MK, Ha CM, Pepin ME, Mia S, Sun Z, Chatham JC, Habegger KM, Abel ED, Paterson AJ, Young ME, Wende AR. Increased Glucose Availability Attenuates Myocardial Ketone Body Utilization. Journal of the American Heart Association 2020 9(15) 32750298
Abstract:
Background Perturbations in myocardial substrate utilization have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction in diabetic subjects. The failing heart in nondiabetics tends to decrease reliance on fatty acid and glucose oxidation, and increases reliance on ketone body oxidation. In contrast, little is known regarding the mechanisms mediating this shift among all 3 substrates in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that changes in myocardial glucose utilization directly influence ketone body catabolism. Methods and Results We examined ventricular-cardiac tissue from the following murine models: (1) streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus; (2) high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance; and transgenic inducible cardiac-restricted expression of (3) glucose transporter 4 (transgenic inducible cardiac restricted expression of glucose transporter 4); or (4) dominant negative O-GlcNAcase. Elevated blood glucose (type 1 diabetes mellitus and high-fat diet mice) was associated with reduced cardiac expression of β-hydroxybutyrate-dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase. Increased myocardial β-hydroxybutyrate levels were also observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus mice, suggesting a mismatch between ketone body availability and utilization. Increased cellular glucose delivery in transgenic inducible cardiac restricted expression of glucose transporter 4 mice attenuated cardiac expression of both Bdh1 and Oxct1 and reduced rates of myocardial BDH1 activity and β-hydroxybutyrate oxidation. Moreover, elevated cardiac protein O-GlcNAcylation (a glucose-derived posttranslational modification) by dominant negative O-GlcNAcase suppressed β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase expression. Consistent with the mouse models, transcriptomic analysis confirmed suppression of BDH1 and OXCT1 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure compared with nondiabetic patients. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that increased glucose leads to suppression of cardiac ketolytic capacity through multiple mechanisms and identifies a potential crosstalk between glucose and ketone body metabolism in the diabetic myocardium.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
BDH, SCOT1
Species: Mus musculus
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Das S, Bailey SK, Metge BJ, Hanna A, Hinshaw DC, Mota M, Forero-Torres A, Chatham JC, Samant RS, Shevde LA. O-GlcNAcylation of GLI transcription factors in hyperglycemic conditions augments Hedgehog activity. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2019 99(2) 30420690
Abstract:
Modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) promotes tumor cell survival, proliferation, epigenetic changes, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Here we demonstrate that in conditions of elevated glucose, there is increased expression of key drug resistance proteins (ABCB1, ABCG2, ERCC1, and XRCC1), all of which are regulated by the Hedgehog pathway. In elevated glucose conditions, we determined that the Hedgehog pathway transcription factors, GLI1 and GLI2, are modified by O-GlcNAcylation. This modification functionally enhanced their transcriptional activity. The activity of GLI was enhanced when O-GlcNAcase was inhibited, while inhibiting O-GlcNAc transferase caused a decrease in GLI activity. The metabolic impact of hyperglycemic conditions impinges on maintaining PKM2 in the less active state that facilitates the availability of glycolytic intermediates for biosynthetic pathways. Interestingly, under elevated glucose conditions, PKM2 directly influenced GLI activity. Specifically, abrogating PKM2 expression caused a significant decline in GLI activity and expression of drug resistance proteins. Cumulatively, our results suggest that elevated glucose conditions upregulate chemoresistance through elevated transcriptional activity of the Hedgehog/GLI pathway. Interfering in O-GlcNAcylation of the GLI transcription factors may be a novel target in controlling cancer progression and drug resistance of breast cancer.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
GLI1, GLI2
Species: Homo sapiens
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Taylor EW, Wang K, Nelson AR, Bredemann TM, Fraser KB, Clinton SM, Puckett R, Marchase RB, Chatham JC, McMahon LL. O-GlcNAcylation of AMPA receptor GluA2 is associated with a novel form of long-term depression at hippocampal synapses. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2014 34(1) 24381264
Abstract:
Serine phosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluA1 and GluA2 modulates AMPAR trafficking during long-term changes in strength of hippocampal excitatory transmission required for normal learning and memory. The post-translational addition and removal of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) also occurs on serine residues. This, together with the high expression of the enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and β-N-acetylglucosamindase (O-GlcNAcase), suggests a potential role for O-GlcNAcylation in modifying synaptic efficacy and cognition. Furthermore, because key synaptic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, this modification may be as important to brain function as phosphorylation, yet its physiological significance remains unknown. We report that acutely increasing O-GlcNAcylation in Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal slices induces an NMDA receptor and protein kinase C-independent long-term depression (LTD) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses (O-GcNAc LTD). This LTD requires AMPAR GluA2 subunits, which we demonstrate are O-GlcNAcylated. Increasing O-GlcNAcylation interferes with long-term potentiation, and in hippocampal behavioral assays, it prevents novel object recognition and placement without affecting contextual fear conditioning. Our findings provide evidence that O-GlcNAcylation dynamically modulates hippocampal synaptic function and learning and memory, and suggest that altered O-GlcNAc levels could underlie cognitive dysfunction in neurological diseases.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
GRIA2
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Heath JM, Sun Y, Yuan K, Bradley WE, Litovsky S, Dell'Italia LJ, Chatham JC, Wu H, Chen Y. Activation of AKT by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine induces vascular calcification in diabetes mellitus. Circulation research 2014 114(7) 24526702
Abstract:
Vascular calcification is a serious cardiovascular complication that contributes to the increased morbidity and mortality of patients with diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemia, a hallmark of diabetes mellitus, is associated with increased vascular calcification and increased modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation).
O-GlcNAc proteins:
AKT1
Species: Mus musculus
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Zhu-Mauldin X, Marsh SA, Zou L, Marchase RB, Chatham JC. Modification of STIM1 by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) attenuates store-operated calcium entry in neonatal cardiomyocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry 2012 287(46) 22992728
Abstract:
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a major Ca(2+) signaling pathway responsible for regulating numerous transcriptional events. In cardiomyocytes SOCE has been shown to play an important role in regulating hypertrophic signaling pathways, including nuclear translocation of NFAT. Acute activation of pathways leading to O-GlcNAc synthesis have been shown to impair SOCE-mediated transcription and in diabetes, where O-GlcNAc levels are chronically elevated, cardiac hypertrophic signaling is also impaired. Therefore the goal of this study was to determine whether changes in cardiomyocyte O-GlcNAc levels impaired the function of STIM1, a widely recognized mediator of SOCE. We demonstrated that acute activation of SOCE in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in STIM1 puncta formation, which was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by increasing O-GlcNAc synthesis with glucosamine or inhibiting O-GlcNAcase with thiamet-G. Glucosamine and thiamet-G also inhibited SOCE and were associated with increased O-GlcNAc modification of STIM1. These results suggest that activation of cardiomyocyte O-GlcNAcylation attenuates SOCE via STIM1 O-GlcNAcylation and that this may represent a new mechanism by which increased O-GlcNAc levels regulate Ca(2+)-mediated events in cardiomyocytes. Further, since SOCE is a fundamental mechanism underlying Ca(2+) signaling in most cells and tissues, it is possible that STIM1 represents a nexus linking protein O-GlcNAcylation with Ca(2+)-mediated transcription.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
STIM1
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Xing D, Gong K, Feng W, Nozell SE, Chen YF, Chatham JC, Oparil S. O-GlcNAc modification of NFκB p65 inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory mediator expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. PloS one 2011 6(8) 21904602
Abstract:
We have shown that glucosamine (GlcN) or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) treatment augments O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification and attenuates inflammatory mediator expression, leukocyte infiltration and neointima formation in balloon injured rat carotid arteries and have identified the arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) as the target cell in the injury response. NFκB signaling has been shown to mediate the expression of inflammatory genes and neointima formation in injured arteries. Phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFκB is required for the transcriptional activation of NFκB. This study tested the hypothesis that GlcN or PUGNAc treatment protects vascular SMCs against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced inflammatory stress by enhancing O-GlcNAcylation and inhibiting TNF-α induced phosphorylation of NFκB p65, thus inhibiting NFκB signaling.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
Q7TQN4
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Durgan DJ, Pat BM, Laczy B, Bradley JA, Tsai JY, Grenett MH, Ratcliffe WF, Brewer RA, Nagendran J, Villegas-Montoya C, Zou C, Zou L, Johnson RL Jr, Dyck JR, Bray MS, Gamble KL, Chatham JC, Young ME. O-GlcNAcylation, novel post-translational modification linking myocardial metabolism and cardiomyocyte circadian clock. The Journal of biological chemistry 2011 286(52) 22069332
Abstract:
The cardiomyocyte circadian clock directly regulates multiple myocardial functions in a time-of-day-dependent manner, including gene expression, metabolism, contractility, and ischemic tolerance. These same biological processes are also directly influenced by modification of proteins by monosaccharides of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Because the circadian clock and protein O-GlcNAcylation have common regulatory roles in the heart, we hypothesized that a relationship exists between the two. We report that total cardiac protein O-GlcNAc levels exhibit a diurnal variation in mouse hearts, peaking during the active/awake phase. Genetic ablation of the circadian clock specifically in cardiomyocytes in vivo abolishes diurnal variations in cardiac O-GlcNAc levels. These time-of-day-dependent variations appear to be mediated by clock-dependent regulation of O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase protein levels, glucose metabolism/uptake, and glutamine synthesis in an NAD-independent manner. We also identify the clock component Bmal1 as an O-GlcNAc-modified protein. Increasing protein O-GlcNAcylation (through pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase) results in diminished Per2 protein levels, time-of-day-dependent induction of bmal1 gene expression, and phase advances in the suprachiasmatic nucleus clock. Collectively, these data suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart during the active/awake phase through coordinated regulation of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and that protein O-GlcNAcylation in turn influences the timing of the circadian clock.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
PER1, BMAL1
Species: Mus musculus
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Teo CF, Ingale S, Wolfert MA, Elsayed GA, Nöt LG, Chatham JC, Wells L, Boons GJ. Glycopeptide-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest new roles for O-GlcNAc. Nature chemical biology 2010 6(5) 20305658
Abstract:
Studies of post-translational modification by beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are hampered by a lack of efficient tools such as O-GlcNAc-specific antibodies that can be used for detection, isolation and site localization. We have obtained a large panel of O-GlcNAc-specific IgG monoclonal antibodies having a broad spectrum of binding partners by combining three-component immunogen methodology with hybridoma technology. Immunoprecipitation followed by large-scale shotgun proteomics led to the identification of more than 200 mammalian O-GlcNAc-modified proteins, including a large number of new glycoproteins. A substantial number of the glycoproteins were enriched by only one of the antibodies. This observation, combined with the results of inhibition ELISAs, suggests that the antibodies, in addition to their O-GlcNAc dependence, also appear to have different but overlapping local peptide determinants. The monoclonal antibodies made it possible to delineate differentially modified proteins of liver in response to trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation in a rat model.
Species: Homo sapiens
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