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Darabedian N, Gao J, Chuh KN, Woo CM, Pratt MR. The Metabolic Chemical Reporter 6-Azido-6-deoxy-glucose Further Reveals the Substrate Promiscuity of O-GlcNAc Transferase and Catalyzes the Discovery of Intracellular Protein Modification by O-Glucose. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018 140(23) 29771506
Abstract:
Metabolic chemical reporters of glycosylation in combination with bioorthogonal reactions have been known for two decades and have been used by many different research laboratories for the identification and visualization of glycoconjugates. More recently, however, they have begun to see utility for the investigation of cellular metabolism and the tolerance of biosynthetic enzymes and glycosyltransferases to different sugars. Here, we take this concept one step further by using the metabolic chemical reporter 6-azido-6-deoxy-glucose (6AzGlc). We show that treatment of mammalian cells with the per- O-acetylated version of 6AzGlc results in robust labeling of a variety of proteins. Notably, the pattern of this labeling was consistent with O-GlcNAc modifications, suggesting that the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase is quite promiscuous for its donor sugar substrates. To confirm this possibility, we show that 6AzGlc-treatment results in the labeling of known O-GlcNAcylated proteins, that the UDP-6AzGlc donor sugar is indeed produced in living cells, and that recombinant OGT will accept UDP-6AzGlc as a substrate in vitro. Finally, we use proteomics to first identify several bona fide 6AzGlc-modifications in mammalian cells and then an endogenous O-glucose modification on host cell factor. These results support the conclusion that OGT can endogenously modify proteins with both N-acetyl-glucosamine and glucose, raising the possibility that intracellular O-glucose modification may be a widespread modification under certain conditions or in particular tissues.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
KPYR, NUP62, NU153, ACTB
Species: Homo sapiens
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Darabedian N, Thompson JW, Chuh KN, Hsieh-Wilson LC, Pratt MR. Optimization of Chemoenzymatic Mass Tagging by Strain-Promoted Cycloaddition (SPAAC) for the Determination of O-GlcNAc Stoichiometry by Western Blotting. Biochemistry 2018 57(40) 30169966
Abstract:
The dynamic modification of intracellular proteins by O-linked β -N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) plays critical roles in many cellular processes. Although various methods have been developed for O-GlcNAc detection, there are few techniques for monitoring glycosylation stoichiometry and state (i.e., mono-, di-, etc., O-GlcNAcylated). Measuring the levels of O-GlcNAcylation on a given substrate protein is important for understanding the biology of this critical modification and for prioritizing substrates for functional studies. One powerful solution to this limitation involves the chemoenzymatic installation of polyethylene glycol polymers of defined molecular mass onto O-GlcNAcylated proteins. These "mass tags" produce shifts in protein migration during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) that can be detected by Western blotting. Broad adoption of this method by the scientific community has been limited, however, by a lack of commercially available reagents and well-defined protein standards. Here, we develop a "click chemistry" approach to this method using entirely commercial reagents and confirm the accuracy of the approach using a semisynthetic O-GlcNAcylated protein. Our studies establish a new, expedited experimental workflow and standardized methods that can be readily utilized by non-experts to quantify the O-GlcNAc stoichiometry and state on endogenous proteins in any cell or tissue lysate.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
CREB1, NUP62, NED4L
Species: Homo sapiens
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Zaro BW, Batt AR, Chuh KN, Navarro MX, Pratt MR. The Small Molecule 2-Azido-2-deoxy-glucose Is a Metabolic Chemical Reporter of O-GlcNAc Modifications in Mammalian Cells, Revealing an Unexpected Promiscuity of O-GlcNAc Transferase. ACS chemical biology 2017 12(3) 28135057
Abstract:
Glycans can be directly labeled using unnatural monosaccharide analogs, termed metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs). These compounds enable the secondary visualization and identification of glycoproteins by taking advantage of bioorthogonal reactions. Most widely used MCRs have azides or alkynes at the 2-N-acetyl position but are not selective for one class of glycoprotein over others. To address this limitation, we are exploring additional MCRs that have bioorthogonal functionality at other positions. Here, we report the characterization of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucose (2AzGlc). We find that 2AzGlc selectively labels intracellular O-GlcNAc modifications, which further supports a somewhat unexpected, structural flexibility in this pathway. In contrast to the endogenous modification N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), we find that 2AzGlc is not dynamically removed from protein substrates and that treatment with higher concentrations of per-acetylated 2AzGlc is toxic to cells. Finally, we demonstrate that this toxicity is an inherent property of the small-molecule, as removal of the 6-acetyl-group renders the corresponding reporter nontoxic but still results in protein labeling.