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Wulff-Fuentes E, Boakye J, Kroenke K, Berendt RR, Martinez-Morant C, Pereckas M, Hanover JA, Olivier-Van Stichelen S. O-GlcNAcylation regulates OTX2's proteostasis. iScience 2023 26(11) 38026167
Abstract:
O-GlcNAcylation is a key post-translational modification, playing a vital role in cell signaling during development, especially in the brain. In this study, we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in regulating the homeobox protein OTX2, which contributes to various brain disorders, such as combined pituitary hormone deficiency, retinopathy, and medulloblastoma. Our research demonstrated that, under normal physiological conditions, the proteasome plays a pivotal role in breaking down endogenous OTX2. However, when the levels of OTX2 rise, it forms oligomers and/or aggregates that require macroautophagy for clearance. Intriguingly, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation enhances the solubility of OTX2, thereby limiting the formation of these aggregates. Additionally, we unveiled an interaction between OTX2 and the chaperone protein CCT5 at the O-GlcNAc sites, suggesting a potential collaborative role in preventing OTX2 aggregation. Finally, our study demonstrated that while OTX2 physiologically promotes cell proliferation, an O-GlcNAc-depleted OTX2 is detrimental to cancer cells.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
OTX2
Species: Homo sapiens
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Mathew MP, Abramowitz LK, Donaldson JG, Hanover JA. Nutrient-responsive O-GlcNAcylation dynamically modulates the secretion of glycan-binding protein galectin 3. The Journal of biological chemistry 2022 298(3) 35183508
Abstract:
Endomembrane glycosylation and cytoplasmic O-GlcNAcylation each play essential roles in nutrient sensing, and characteristic changes in glycan patterns have been described in disease states such as diabetes and cancer. These changes in glycosylation have important functional roles and can drive disease progression. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying how these signals are integrated and transduced into biological effects. Galectins are proteins that bind glycans and that are secreted by a poorly characterized nonclassical secretory mechanism. Once outside the cell, galectins bind to the terminal galactose residues of cell surface glycans and modulate numerous extracellular functions, such as clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Originating in the cytoplasm, galectins are predicted substrates for O-GlcNAc addition and removal; and as we have shown, galectin 3 is a substrate for O-GlcNAc transferase. In this study, we also show that galectin 3 secretion is sensitive to changes in O-GlcNAc levels. We determined using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting that there is a significant difference in O-GlcNAcylation status between cytoplasmic and secreted galectin 3. We observed dramatic alterations in galectin 3 secretion in response to nutrient conditions, which were dependent on dynamic O-GlcNAcylation. Importantly, we showed that these O-GlcNAc-driven alterations in galectin 3 secretion also facilitated changes in CIE. These results indicate that dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of galectin 3 plays a role in modulating its secretion and can tune its function in transducing nutrient-sensing information coded in cell surface glycosylation into biological effects.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
LEG3
Species: Homo sapiens
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Abramowitz LK, Hanover JA. Chronically Elevated O-GlcNAcylation Limits Nitric Oxide Production and Deregulates Specific Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines. Frontiers in immunology 2022 13 35432339
Abstract:
Inflammation is the immune response to harmful stimuli, including pathogens, damaged cells and toxic compounds. However, uncontrolled inflammation can be detrimental and contribute to numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, such as insulin resistance. At the forefront of this response are macrophages, which sense the local microenvironment to respond with a pro-inflammatory, M1-polarized phenotype, or anti-inflammatory, M2-polarized phenotype. M1 macrophages upregulate factors like pro-inflammatory cytokines, to promote inflammatory signaling, and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), to produce nitric oxide (NO). The generated NO can kill microorganisms to protect the body, but also signal back to the macrophage to limit pro-inflammatory cytokine production to maintain macrophage homeostasis. Thus, the tight regulation of iNOS in macrophages is critical for the immune system. Here, we investigated how elevation of the nutrient-sensitive posttranslational modification, O-GlcNAc, impacts M1 polarized macrophages. We identified increased gene expression of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-1β, Il-12) when O-GlcNAc cycling was blocked. We further uncovered an interaction between O-GlcNAc and iNOS, with iNOS being an OGT target in vitro. Analysis of M1 polarized bone marrow derived macrophages deficient in the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAcase (OGA), revealed decreased iNOS activity as measured by a reduction in NO release. Further, elevated O-GlcNAc acted on Il-6 expression through the iNOS pathway, as iNOS inhibitior L-NIL raised wildtype Il-6 expression similar to OGA deficient cells but had no further effect on the hyper-O-GlcNAcylated cells. Thus O-GlcNAc contributes to macrophage homeostasis through modulation of iNOS activity.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NOS2
Species: Mus musculus
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Akan I, Halim A, Vakhrushev SY, Clausen H, Hanover JA. Drosophila O-GlcNAcase Mutants Reveal an Expanded Glycoproteome and Novel Growth and Longevity Phenotypes. Cells 2021 10(5) 33925313
Abstract:
The reversible posttranslational O-GlcNAc modification of serine or threonine residues of intracellular proteins is involved in many cellular events from signaling cascades to epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. O-GlcNAcylation is a conserved nutrient-dependent process involving two enzymes, with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) adding O-GlcNAc and with O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removing it in a manner that's protein- and context-dependent. O-GlcNAcylation is essential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression through its action on Polycomb and Trithorax and COMPASS complexes. However, the important role of O-GlcNAc in adult life and health span has been largely unexplored, mainly due the lack of available model systems. Cataloging the O-GlcNAc proteome has proven useful in understanding the biology of this modification in vivo. In this study, we leveraged a recently developed oga knockout fly mutant to identify the O-GlcNAcylated proteins in adult Drosophilamelanogaster. The adult O-GlcNAc proteome revealed many proteins related to cell and organismal growth, development, differentiation, and epigenetics. We identified many O-GlcNAcylated proteins that play a role in increased growth and decreased longevity, including HCF, SIN3A, LOLA, KISMET, ATX2, SHOT, and FOXO. Interestingly, oga mutant flies are larger and have a shorter life span compared to wild type flies, suggesting increased O-GlcNAc results in increased growth. Our results suggest that O-GlcNAc alters the function of many proteins related to transcription, epigenetic modification and signaling pathways that regulate growth rate and longevity. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of O-GlcNAc in growth and life span in adult Drosophila.
O-GlcNAc proteins: