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Akan I, Halim A, Vakhrushev SY, Clausen H, Hanover JA. Drosophila O-GlcNAcase Mutants Reveal an Expanded Glycoproteome and Novel Growth and Longevity Phenotypes. Cells 2021 10(5) 33925313
Abstract:
The reversible posttranslational O-GlcNAc modification of serine or threonine residues of intracellular proteins is involved in many cellular events from signaling cascades to epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. O-GlcNAcylation is a conserved nutrient-dependent process involving two enzymes, with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) adding O-GlcNAc and with O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removing it in a manner that's protein- and context-dependent. O-GlcNAcylation is essential for epigenetic regulation of gene expression through its action on Polycomb and Trithorax and COMPASS complexes. However, the important role of O-GlcNAc in adult life and health span has been largely unexplored, mainly due the lack of available model systems. Cataloging the O-GlcNAc proteome has proven useful in understanding the biology of this modification in vivo. In this study, we leveraged a recently developed oga knockout fly mutant to identify the O-GlcNAcylated proteins in adult Drosophilamelanogaster. The adult O-GlcNAc proteome revealed many proteins related to cell and organismal growth, development, differentiation, and epigenetics. We identified many O-GlcNAcylated proteins that play a role in increased growth and decreased longevity, including HCF, SIN3A, LOLA, KISMET, ATX2, SHOT, and FOXO. Interestingly, oga mutant flies are larger and have a shorter life span compared to wild type flies, suggesting increased O-GlcNAc results in increased growth. Our results suggest that O-GlcNAc alters the function of many proteins related to transcription, epigenetic modification and signaling pathways that regulate growth rate and longevity. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of O-GlcNAc in growth and life span in adult Drosophila.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A0A0B4K6K9, A0A0B4K6N5, A0A0B4K6T1, A0A0B4K707, A0A0B4K7Q3, A0A0B4K7V4, A0A0B4K813, A0A0B4K880, A0A0B4KF23, A0A0B4KGY9, A0A0B4KHB2, A0A0B4KI71, A0A0B4LF93, A0A0B4LFP7, A0A0B4LFX4, A0A0B4LGJ1, A0A0B4LGL0, A0A0B4LH23, A0A0B4LH64, A0A0B4LHK4, A0A0B4LHS9, A0A0B4LIF3, A0A0B4LJ24, PO210, A1Z6M0, A1Z7F1, A1Z7Y7, A1Z8Z3, A1Z9J3, A1Z9L2, A8DQW8, SBNO, B7Z049, B7Z0L0, B7Z0Q5, E1JHV7, E2QCS7, G3JX32, M9MRJ4, M9MRN7, M9MS77, M9NCQ1, M9NE59, M9NEL3, M9NG31, M9NG33, M9NGK3, M9PCF6, M9PCJ8, M9PCM8, M9PCM8, M9PDU2, M9PE74, M9PEK8, M9PFU6, M9PI47, M9PI58, M9PI84, M9PJ79, O61380, O96607, RPB1, OPS1, L2GL, CO4A1, LAMB1, ITBX, LSP1G, ITA2, PDE4B, FSH, CYPR, DHGL, SUZ2, GLT, MNB, STIM, YL, LAMA, Q0E8B8, MESH, LSP2, SYN, Q5BIJ2, Q6GV06, SODE, Q7JWQ7, NUP62, NUP50, Q7K1C5, Q7K3Y9, Q7K3Z3, SCRIB, Q7KTJ7, LOLA4, PPN, Q86BM5, Q8IHB0, Q8IMB8, Q8IMH4, Q8INE9, Q8IPG9, TRR, LBR, Q8MMD3, Q8MRI4, Q8SWX4, Q8SX98, Q8SXR1, Q8T0N3, Q8T3W8, Q95R71, GILT1, Q95RC5, FOXO, Q9GNC8, CAPR1, Q9I7M5, Q9I7S9, LAR4, Q9I7T8, PATJ, CAPS, ERO1L, Q9V3U6, Q9V4B8, HCF, NUP54, Q9V9U1, CTNS, Q9VCR9, Q9VCS4, Q9VDI1, Q9VDT5, Q9VFC9, Q9VFR2, Q9VG78, Q9VH63, Q9VHC3, Q9VHC8, Q9VIF2, Q9VII5, Q9VJQ3, Q9VJX4, EDC4, Q9VKM8, Q9VKP2, Q9VKT1, Q9VLF4, Q9VM55, Q9VMD2, TIG, Q9VMV5, Q9VP57, Q9VPQ7, Q9VPU9, Q9VQ58, Q9VQM0, INE, Q9VR69, Q9VRT5, Q9VS02, Q9VSC3, Q9VT00, Q9VTC1, PLOD, Q9VTW7, NPLP2, Q9VUH6, Q9VUJ4, Q9VVP9, Q9VW34, Q9VWL4, MINY3, Q9VXA3, NU153, Q9VXH7, MADD, Q9VXY5, Q9VY04, Q9VYR1, Q9VZ58, Q9VZJ3, Q9VZQ7, Q9W1A9, Q9W1J0, NU214, Q9W2N6, Q9W329, Q9W3F3, Q9W3G1, Q9W3L4, Q9W3V9, Q9W451, Q9W4M7, FUTSC, Q9W5B4, Q9Y0Z1, Q9Y136, Q9Y141, Q9Y154, R9PY26, X2JAR4, X2JC54, X2JG40, X2JIM3
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Lee BE, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Jeong H, Kim BG, Lee HE, Lee J, Kim HB, Lee SE, Yang YR, Yi EC, Hanover JA, Myung K, Suh PG, Kwon T, Kim JI. O-GlcNAcylation regulates dopamine neuron function, survival and degeneration in Parkinson disease. Brain : a journal of neurology 2020 143(12) 33300544
Abstract:
The dopamine system in the midbrain is essential for volitional movement, action selection, and reward-related learning. Despite its versatile roles, it contains only a small set of neurons in the brainstem. These dopamine neurons are especially susceptible to Parkinson's disease and prematurely degenerate in the course of disease progression, while the discovery of new therapeutic interventions has been disappointingly unsuccessful. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation, an essential post-translational modification in various types of cells, is critical for the physiological function and survival of dopamine neurons. Bidirectional modulation of O-GlcNAcylation importantly regulates dopamine neurons at the molecular, synaptic, cellular, and behavioural levels. Remarkably, genetic and pharmacological upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation mitigates neurodegeneration, synaptic impairments, and motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. These findings provide insights into the functional importance of O-GlcNAcylation in the dopamine system, which may be utilized to protect dopamine neurons against Parkinson's disease pathology.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
BIG2, F1712, VIR, AJM1, RPGP1, UBR4, SCN1A, AGRIN, TITIN, KALRN, STPG3, FXL16, TT23L, PTPRS, GRIK3, SCN2A, DLGP4, OSBL8, PTPRZ, PGBD5, GLSK, GCN1, CE350, PI4KA, RYR2, AGRF2, UBE4A, NRX2A, FRY, SYGP1, OTOGL, AT2B1, ANK3, CA2D1, DPYL2, STXB1, DCTN1, U5S1, GFRA2, GALT1, SEM4D, KIF3C, PLCA, PHB2, NCAM2, GRAK, PURB, IMA3, IMA7, PLD3, FOLH1, FKBP8, STX1A, PSDE, VIAAT, AP1B1, C1QBP, SYT3, HNRH1, SATT, CTND2, SDC4, AP3D1, RGS9, RGS7, CSK22, OX2G, AAKG1, CRYM, PROM1, CNTP1, ENTP2, BCKD, SNG1, NIPS1, NIPS2, SEPT7, AT2A2, DHX9, PI51C, PI42A, ITB5, GPX4, NPTX2, GNAZ, WDR1, S4A4, MTX2, CNTFR, ZFR, CSN3, HCN2, HCN1, CTBP1, BSN, MPP3, NOE1, CBPD, LGMN, COR1A, CYB, COX1, COX2, COX3, HPRT, ATP6, THY1, H3C, LAMC1, NU1M, NU2M, NU4M, NU5M, ATP8, GFAP, MBP, PRIO, ALDOA, KAPCA, AATM, TBA1B, TBA3, KIT, LDHA, G6PI, MDR1B, ENPP1, HS90A, ENPL, KCC4, NFL, NFM, RASN, PGK2, ITB1, PPBT, NUCL, PGK1, ACE, LRC4B, UBB, UBC, EF1A1, IF4A2, GSTM1, 4F2, H10, LAMP1, HS90B, L1CAM, ITA5, KCC2A, ITB2, ITPR1, TCPA, PFKAL, CNTN1, NCAM1, AT1B1, C1QB, RS16, RL7, AT1B2, PSMD3, MAP1B, GLNA, CADH2, INSR, NTRK2, KCNC1, SPTB1, H12, KPCE, LDHB, CN37, DDX3L, KCNA1, KCNA3, AMPE, ASSY, SPTN1, G3P, LAMP2, ENOA, AP2A1, AP2A2, HXK1, GTR1, PTPRA, COF1, GNAO, FAS, LAMA1, NFH, COX41, BIP, HEXB, VIME, MTAP2, MAG, GNA11, GNAQ, MDR1A, ACES, GBRG2, AP1G1, GBRD, EIF3A, CXA1, GRIA1, GRIA2, TY3H, RS2, GBRA2, RL3, BRAF, KCC2B, NP1L1, NCKP1, SNAB, KIF2A, KIF3A, PABP1, GBB4, KCRU, GNA14, KAP3, SC6A1, S6A11, MP2K1, GTR3, LA, RASK, SYWC, KIF1A, HYES, RAB3D, RAB5C, RAB6A, RAB21, NMDZ1, ODPA, RET, FBRL, KCNJ2, CD81, GPM6A, GPM6B, GNL1, DYN1, DYN2, GRIK2, CAP1, ABCA2, PURA, HD, EAA2, H14, H15, H13, ITAV, SYT1, NSF, RB11B, AINX, MYO1B, NEDD4, ALDH2, GRM8, CAZA2, CAPZB, MP2K4, PFKAM, RL6, RL29, RL5, GLRB, DCE1, DCE2, CBR1, GSTM5, ADT1, INPP, CDK5, SAHH, GDIA, VATA, VATE1, GBRB1, RAB7A, ACADL, VA0D1, ADT2, EAA3, KCNJ4, KPYM, RAB2A, PRS6B, PTN5, NCAN, ABCD3, RAB8A, ATPK, ATP5E, UBP5, ATPB, CTBP2, EAA1, WFS1, FUS, NICA, ACTN4, ASM3B, EF2, OPA1, DOCK4, IRPL1, ARPC4, MYPR, PLPP, ACTB, MDGA2, NEUG, RAC3, IF4A1, MEGF8, RAB5B, RAB10, RAB8B, ARP2, ACTZ, CSN2, ARF3, ARL1, CAH10, RAP2B, STX1B, RAB6B, RL27, ARF4, GABT, HNRPK, 1433G, RS7, PP1A, RS8, SMD1, KCAB2, ABI2, RB11A, EF1A2, RS4X, PP2AB, RL18A, ACTA, AP2S1, RL23A, VISL1, H4, GBRA1, VATB2, RAB1A, RAB3C, RAN, RAP1A, RS24, GBB1, GBB2, RS3, RL8, RS27A, RL40, RAC1, RAB3A, HSP7C, CH60, VAMP2, NOE3, GBRB3, VATL, PP1G, 1433Z, GBRB2, KCNA2, KCAB1, CRNL1, DYL1, ACTG, ACTH, KPCG, PP2BA, PP2AA, PHB, CSK2B, ACTC, RACK1, ACTS, KAPCB, TBA4A, TBA1A, TBB4B, KPCB, H31, IMB1, PLXA1, PLXA2, PLXA3, DCC, ITPR3, NCHL1, HNRH2, ELAV1, USP9X, IDHG1, LYAG, AT8A1, TCPH, TCPB, TCPD, TCPE, TCPZ, TCPG, TNIK, WNK1, RL36A, ARF1, ARF5, AP2M1, H32, H33, ADCY5, NPTN, RS3A, AT1B3, DPYL1, ZNT3, GRM1, SHPS1, NEO1, FUMH, M4K4, C1QA, TBB5, PDE4D, PDE1B, NMDE2, SC23A, TERA, C1QC, CTNB1, PLAK, EPHA4, MARK3, ATPA, CHLE, KCND1, KCRB, NF1, CDK18, RAC2, MARK2, PGBM, PTPRG, PYC, KCMA1, PADI2, INF2, TRIO, MDGA1, CTP5A, ITB8, PSA, GRM2, PTCD3, PHAR1, LRFN1, SPP2B, HP1B3, NLRX1, PRC2C, TM38A, VGLU1, BIG3, PLXD1, AGAP2, AAK1, TEN4, CAMKV, DOP2, RMD3, SMU1, MCCB, GPD1L, LIGO2, SRBS2, CDKL5, K22O, VPS51, GRM5, CBAR2, SHAN3, UN13A, SE6L2, KCTD8, KCD16, LRC8B, VP13A, C2C4C, S2551, MRS2, DIRA2, CYFP2, TM1L2, RHG44, MYO1D, RABL6, DJC11, UIMC1, ICAM5, FLOT2, HNRPD, PTPRN, CSK21, KHDR1, IGF1R, CLD11, SPB6, ARHG2, VDAC2, VDAC3, VDAC1, ABCB7, ASTN1, P3C2A, CAC1E, LAMB2, CTNA2, SC6A3, CNTN2, PGCB, NEP, KCNA4, CD166, 5NTD, GSLG1, EWS, AP180, FSCN1, GDIB, GRIK5, GRID1, DDX5, HS105, ITIH3, IL1AP, CD47, KINH, KIF3B, LASP1, MYH10, MOG, NPM, PCBP2, CSPG2, DDX3Y, DLG4, RHOC, DAG1, DDX3X, SYPH, TICN1, NDUA4, NPTX1, NUP62, OMGP, HECAM, AOFA, ARP3B, SURF4, SYN2, CP3AD, H2B1H, GLPK, SDC3, GPDM, H2A2C, H2B2B, GRM7, GRM4, CLH1, K1549, GIT1, PKP4, PPR29, CNTN4, NLGN2, SV2C, THS7A, CE170, UBP7, BRNP2, SCMC3, LIGO3, DGKB, RPRD2, DPP10, S23IP, PPRC1, 2ABA, TNPO3, SIK3, U520, S39AA, TTYH3, XPO1, SPCS, KCRS, CSKI1, NRX3A, BCR, SARM1, PRRT3, TEFF1, RAB35, CA2D2, KCC2D, AT1A3, AT1A2, GNAS1, SDK2, WDFY3, NTRK3, RAD9B, DGLA, KCD12, MTMR5, UBE2O, CAND1, UBP34, RS9, 2ABB, H2B1C, TLN2, CSPG5, 2AAA, NP1L4, MTCH2, OPALI, CYFP1, TBB2A, HUWE1, IGS21, ROBO2, ACTN1, IGSF1, TR143, TPPP, OTUB1, KPBB, PP6R1, MAP6, ELP1, RRAGD, MRCKB, GABR2, CSMD3, EPT1, VAT1L, LRRC7, CAPS1, CYLD, AGRL1, AGRL3, CLAP1, AUXI, DAAM2, MADD, MFN2, NU214, UBE3C, PLXA4, FBX2, KCMF1, CBPM, GSTM7, AGFG2, LRC8A, HPLN4, VAC14, UBP2L, C2C2L, LRRT4, BDH, MK15, CNKR2, TENA, ASTN2, NEGR1, RAP2A, THEM6, SLIK5, SLIK4, SLIK3, SLIK2, NFASC, NRCAM, RHG32, SRGP3, EFTU, VGLU3, ERLN2, ROA3, SV2B, MIRO1, EFR3A, LRRT2, U2AF4, ENPP6, SYAC, FLRT3, CBLN2, LRTM2, HPCL4, COR2B, CMC1, ATLA1, NU107, RB39B, RB39A, ZN526, ANS1B, DLGP2, AHSA1, IPO5, NCEH1, LSAMP, CADM2, NOE2, ODP2, RBGPR, ECHA, SPA2L, SYNC, RL24, DAAM1, DMXL2, RLGPB, CLAP2, VMAT2, ARF2, NDRG4, ENPP4, HSDL1, RAP2C, GEPH, VATH, PMGT2, TTC12, AOFB, LRFN5, PIGT, CTL2, TENR, NLGN3, LRRT3, DYN3, LRC4C, ARHGA, SYFA, SI1L1, LCAP, EXOG, CERS6, SEP11, IKZF4, GP158, CWC22, VPS52, SCAI, ANK2, PDE10, PGM2L, SHFL, MIC60, WDR37, ABI1, SYNPO, T132C, GLT13, NED4L, RPB2, TCRG1, GNAL, H2B1K, H2B1P, H2A1F, H2A1H, H2A1K, OGT1, SYNJ1, SEPT8, MBOA7, PGP, NGEF, PYGB, COPA, MARK4, DOCK3, PLXB1, TXTP, AGRL2, TRHDE, R4RL1, RTN1, HS12A, K319L, DNM1L, AGRG1, PACS1, ABCF3, SDHA, HACD3, AGFG1, PAF1, IPO11, CCM2, MATR3, ATAT, LRRT1, LGI3, RPTOR, COL12, NAC2, THIL, EIF3L, MARE2, HNRPL, K0513, IQEC1, CACB4, SCPDL, BPHL, SNG3, EIF3C, H2AJ, DC1L1, S35A3, AP3M2, MUC18, UBQL1, PSPC1, NUP58, IGSF8, EXOC1, CACB1, CADM4, NUP85, SNP47, ACTY, WASF1, AMPB, MICU1, PSMD2, AT1A1, CDIPT, GD1L1, CC50A, HNRPU, REM2, MPCP, MARK1, CSPG4, SORC3, IPO4, SFPQ, BACH, S12A5, RAB14, SFXN3, ACLY, NDUS1, ITM2C, RMXL1, MIC25, ATPG, DDX1, MLP3A, UBAP2, ACSL6, NDUS2, ERLN1, DLG2, PI42C, IPO9, NDUV1, GRHPR, SRGP2, SRGP1, RAB4B, LRP1, WDR7, BRNP1, SYDC, TBB6, PDK3, TSN2, PDE2A, RPAB3, CSMD1, KCC2G, 2ABD, ATAD3, SFXN5, MYO5A, G37L1, RAP1B, SFXN1, NLGN1, NONO, RRAGC, TIP, MLF2, GAK, CDS2, NDUAA, ETFA, TNPO2, PTPRT, DNJA3, T121B, SF3B1, RIMS1, CNTP4, NTRI, PRP8, COX6C, MGST3, CNTP2, 6PGL, QCR8, NDUB4, RAB5A, GLRX3, AT5F1, S2546, MLP3B, 1433B, RL14, M2OM, UCRI, MIC19, PRPS2, NRX1A, MICU3, ARPC2, TBB2B, ROA0, CENPV, RL11, ILF2, TECR, RN181, BIEA, QCR1, OLA1, RL15, AL1B1, TOM70, MPC2, ODPB, MMS19, MGRN1, HNRPM, SCOT1, DYL2, RM28, RAB1B, LIGO1, RUFY3, MEII1, ATAD1, CUL5, GBRA4, TBB4A, GHC1, IDH3A, PRPS1, U2AF1, RL4, PSD12, SNAA, ATPO, BTBDH, QCR2, ALG2, AP2B1, RPN2, SUSD2, NDUA9, NDUS7, 6PGD, EIF3F, NDUS3, RAB13, XPO7, IPO7, NBEA, SORC2, VPS35, RPGF4, TBB3, XPO2, RTN3, LRBA, SPN90, TRIM2, DYHC1, LRP1B, LGI1, PRAF2, SV2A, SCAM5, NECT1, HYOU1, EXTL1, SORC1, DCLK1, MTOR, MINK1, ZN207, AP3B2, MY18A, RHOA, HPLN1, FAK2, NAGAB, COPG2, KI21A, SHRM3, PLEC, DREB, CMC2, EHD3, PLXB3, ADDA, DNJA2, GRM3, PCLO, SIA7A, ARP10, DCTN5, PLXC1, COPG1, GPC1, UBQL2, FBX6, SRR, AT2B2, CELR2, DEST, ARC1A, KAD1, GBRG1, GUAD, CBLN1, DGKE, VAS1, ADA22, ADA23, PEPL, CAD13, TEN1, TEN2, CUL1, ATRN, GLPK2, PDC6I, PFKAP, PYGM, SUCA, RBMX, GABR1, GSK3B, FPRP, E41L3, BUB3, CARM1, PSD13, CP46A, APC7, NCDN, ITB6, KCND2, NU160, HNRDL, SAE2, VATC1, VPP1, ARI1, CA2D3, SEPT3, AP3B1, STK39, HNRPC, DPP6, E41L1, SUCB1, SEPT5, GRIA4, GRIA3, HOME1
Species: Mus musculus
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Krause MW, Love DC, Ghosh SK, Wang P, Yun S, Fukushige T, Hanover JA. Nutrient-Driven O-GlcNAcylation at Promoters Impacts Genome-Wide RNA Pol II Distribution. Frontiers in endocrinology 2018 9 30250452
Abstract:
Nutrient-driven O-GlcNAcylation has been linked to epigenetic regulation of gene expression in metazoans. In C. elegans, O-GlcNAc marks the promoters of over 800 developmental, metabolic, and stress-related genes; these O-GlcNAc marked genes show a strong 5', promoter-proximal bias in the distribution of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In response to starvation or feeding, the steady state distribution of O-GlcNAc at promoters remain nearly constant presumably due to dynamic cycling mediated by the transferase OGT-1 and the O-GlcNAcase OGA-1. However, in viable mutants lacking either of these enzymes of O-GlcNAc metabolism, the nutrient-responsive GlcNAcylation of promoters is dramatically altered. Blocked O-GlcNAc cycling leads to a striking nutrient-dependent accumulation of O-GlcNAc on RNA Pol II. O-GlcNAc cycling mutants also show an exaggerated, nutrient-responsive redistribution of promoter-proximal RNA Pol II isoforms and extensive transcriptional deregulation. Our findings suggest a complex interplay between the O-GlcNAc modification at promoters, the kinase-dependent "CTD-code," and co-factors regulating RNA Pol II dynamics. Nutrient-responsive O-GlcNAc cycling may buffer the transcriptional apparatus from dramatic swings in nutrient availability by modulating promoter activity to meet metabolic and developmental needs.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
RPB1
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Akan I, Love DC, Harwood KR, Bond MR, Hanover JA. Drosophila O-GlcNAcase Deletion Globally Perturbs Chromatin O-GlcNAcylation. The Journal of biological chemistry 2016 291(19) 26957542
Abstract:
Gene expression during Drosophila development is subject to regulation by the Polycomb (Pc), Trithorax (Trx), and Compass chromatin modifier complexes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT/SXC) is essential for Pc repression suggesting that the O-GlcNAcylation of proteins plays a key role in regulating development. OGT transfers O-GlcNAc onto serine and threonine residues in intrinsically disordered domains of key transcriptional regulators; O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes the modification. To pinpoint genomic regions that are regulated by O-GlcNAc levels, we performed ChIP-chip and microarray analysis after OGT or OGA RNAi knockdown in S2 cells. After OGA RNAi, we observed a genome-wide increase in the intensity of most O-GlcNAc-occupied regions including genes linked to cell cycle, ubiquitin, and steroid response. In contrast, O-GlcNAc levels were strikingly insensitive to OGA RNAi at sites of polycomb repression such as the Hox and NK homeobox gene clusters. Microarray analysis suggested that altered O-GlcNAc cycling perturbed the expression of genes associated with morphogenesis and cell cycle regulation. We then produced a viable null allele of oga (oga(del.1)) in Drosophila allowing visualization of altered O-GlcNAc cycling on polytene chromosomes. We found that trithorax (TRX), absent small or homeotic discs 1 (ASH1), and Compass member SET1 histone methyltransferases were O-GlcNAc-modified in oga(del.1) mutants. The oga(del.1) mutants displayed altered expression of a distinct set of cell cycle-related genes. Our results show that the loss of OGA in Drosophila globally impacts the epigenetic machinery allowing O-GlcNAc accumulation on RNA polymerase II and numerous chromatin factors including TRX, ASH1, and SET1.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
TRX, SET1, ASH1
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Ranuncolo SM, Ghosh S, Hanover JA, Hart GW, Lewis BA. Evidence of the involvement of O-GlcNAc-modified human RNA polymerase II CTD in transcription in vitro and in vivo. The Journal of biological chemistry 2012 287(28) 22605332
Abstract:
The RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD), which serves as a scaffold to recruit machinery involved in transcription, is modified post-translationally. Although the O-GlcNAc modification of RNA polymerase II CTD was documented in 1993, its functional significance remained obscure. We show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) modified CTD serine residues 5 and 7. Drug inhibition of OGT and OGA (N-acetylglucosaminidase) blocked transcription during preinitiation complex assembly. Polymerase II and OGT co-immunoprecipitated, and OGT is a component of the preinitiation complex. OGT shRNA experiments showed that reduction of OGT causes a reduction in transcription and RNA polymerase II occupancy at several B-cell promoters. These data suggest that the cycling of O-GlcNAc on and off of polymerase II occurs during assembly of the preinitiation complex. Our results define unexpected roles for both the CTD and O-GlcNAc in the regulation of transcription initiation in higher eukaryotes.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
RPB1
Species: Homo sapiens
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Lazarus BD, Love DC, Hanover JA. Recombinant O-GlcNAc transferase isoforms: identification of O-GlcNAcase, yes tyrosine kinase, and tau as isoform-specific substrates. Glycobiology 2006 16(5) 16434389
Abstract:
O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (OGT) catalyzes the transfer of O-linked GlcNAc to serine or threonine residues of a variety of substrate proteins, including nuclear pore proteins, transcription factors, and proteins implicated in diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We have identified two nucleocytoplasmic isoforms of OGT (ncOGT and sOGT) and one isoform that localizes to the mitochondria (mOGT). These three isoforms contain identical catalytic regions but differ in the number of tetratricopeptide repeat motifs found at the N-terminus of each enzyme. We expressed each of these OGT isoforms in a soluble form in Escherichia coli and have used them to identify novel targets including the Src-family tyrosine kinase yes and O-GlcNAc-ase. We demonstrate that some substrate proteins, such as Nup62 and casein kinase II, are glycosylated by both ncOGT and mOGT, while others such as O-GlcNAcase and tau are specifically modified by ncOGT. The yes kinase was specifically modified by mOGT. The short isoform of OGT (sOGT) did not glycosylate any of the substrates tested, although it retains a potentially active catalytic domain. Our findings demonstrate the potential utility of recombinant OGT in identifying new targets and illustrate the necessity to examine all active isoforms of the enzyme. The identification of a tyrosine kinase and O-GlcNAcase as OGT targets suggests the potential for OGT participation in numerous signal transduction cascades.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
OGA
Species: Homo sapiens
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Vocadlo DJ, Hang HC, Kim EJ, Hanover JA, Bertozzi CR. A chemical approach for identifying O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003 100(16) 12874386
Abstract:
The glycosylation of serine and threonine residues with a single GlcNAc moiety is a dynamic posttranslational modification of many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. We describe a chemical strategy directed toward identifying O-GlcNAc-modified proteins from living cells or proteins modified in vitro. We demonstrate, in vitro, that each enzyme in the hexosamine salvage pathway, and the enzymes that affect this dynamic modification (UDP-GlcNAc:polypeptidtyltransferase and O-GlcNAcase), tolerate analogues of their natural substrates in which the N-acyl side chain has been modified to bear a bio-orthogonal azide moiety. Accordingly, treatment of cells with N-azidoacetylglucosamine results in the metabolic incorporation of the azido sugar into nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. These O-azidoacetylglucosamine-modified proteins can be covalently derivatized with various biochemical probes at the site of protein glycosylation by using the Staudinger ligation. The approach was validated by metabolic labeling of nuclear pore protein p62, which is known to be posttranslationally modified with O-GlcNAc. This strategy will prove useful for both the identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and the elucidation of the specific residues that bear this saccharide.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NUP62
Species: Homo sapiens
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Miller MW, Caracciolo MR, Berlin WK, Hanover JA. Phosphorylation and glycosylation of nucleoporins. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1999 367(1) 10375398
Abstract:
The nuclear pore complex mediates macromolecular transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Many nuclear pore components (nucleoporins) are modified by both phosphate and O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Among its many functions, protein phosphorylation plays essential roles in cell cycle progression. The role of O-GlcNAc addition is unknown. Here, levels of nucleoporin phosphorylation and glycosylation during cell cycle progression are examined. Whereas nuclear pore glycoproteins are phosphorylated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, levels of O-GlcNAc remain constant. The major nucleoporin p62 can be phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase A and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3alpha but not by cyclin B/cdc2 or GSK-3beta. The consensus sites of these kinases resemble sites which can be glycosylated by O-GlcNAc transferase. These data are consistent with a model that O-GlcNAc limits nucleoporin hyperphosphorylation during M-phase and hastens the resumption of regulated nuclear transport at the completion of cell division.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NUP62
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Lubas WA, Smith M, Starr CM, Hanover JA. Analysis of nuclear pore protein p62 glycosylation. Biochemistry 1995 34(5) 7849028
Abstract:
Glycoprotein components of the nuclear pore are essential for nuclear transport and are modified by both glycosylation and phosphorylation. The function and control of these post-translational modifications are poorly understood. Glycosylation of the major rat nuclear pore glycoprotein, p62, was examined in vitro using recombinant p62 as a substrate. Rat p62 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. Kinetic analysis using a partially purified mammalian transferase suggests that the recombinant protein is an excellent substrate (Km = 0.30 microM) for the transfer of GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc (Km = 1.8 microM). Localization of the sites of O-linked GlcNAc glycosylation of rat p62 was performed by a combination of deletion analysis of in vitro translation products and by immunoprecipitation of [14C]GlcNAc-labeled proteolytic fragments. The amino terminus of rat p62 is poorly glycosylated with no O-linked GlcNAc sites between Lys22 and Lys97; the carboxyl terminus has one known glycosylation site at Ser471. The majority of the glycosylation sites in rat p62 are likely to occur on the six clustered Ser residues in the central Ser/Thr-rich region from Ser270 to Thr294. A synthetic peptide derived from this region is a good substrate for O-GlcNAc addition (Km = 30 microM) and a potent competitive inhibitor of p62 glycosylation (Ki = 15 microM). It is proposed that this Ser/Thr-rich domain functions as a linker region between the amino-terminal beta-pleated sheet and the carboxyl terminal alpha-helical domains. O-Glycosylation and phosphorylation of this linker region could provide a dynamic means of altering the conformation of p62 during nuclear pore assembly and disassembly.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NUP62
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Murphy JE, Hanover JA, Froehlich M, DuBois G, Keen JH. Clathrin assembly protein AP-3 is phosphorylated and glycosylated on the 50-kDa structural domain. The Journal of biological chemistry 1994 269(33) 8063760
Abstract:
AP-3 (AP180) in rat sympathetic neurons maintained in culture was analyzed by pulse-chase labeling with [35S]methionine to look for post-translational modifications. At early times, two lower molecular weight precursors of the mature species were detected. By 10 min, all of the AP-3 was found in the mature form which is stable for at least 9 h. We show here that at least one of these processing events is due to the addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) which is present on the mature form of the protein. Wheat germ agglutinin, a GlcNAc-specific probe, bound to AP-3 and the binding was blocked by excess GlcNAc but not by excess mannose. Purified AP-3, and AP-3 in coated vesicles derived from bovine brain, served as substrates for beta-D-galactosyltransferase which is specific for terminal GlcNAc residues. Analysis of the disaccharide released by beta-elimination indicated that single GlcNAc residues are attached to AP-3 through an O-glycosidic linkage to threonine or serine residues. In vivo 32P-labeled AP-3, the result of serine phosphorylation (Keen, J. H., and Black, M.M. (1986) J. Cell Biol. 102, 1325-1333), bound to wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose indicating that phosphorylation and glycosylation can occur simultaneously on the same molecule. Both modifications have been mapped to the central 50-kDa structural domain that is responsible for the anomalous migration of AP-3. Consistent with localization to the nonclathrin binding domain, the O-GlcNAc modification does not play a discernible role in the interaction of AP-3 with clathrin.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
AP3D1
Species: Bos taurus
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D'Onofrio M, Starr CM, Park MK, Holt GD, Haltiwanger RS, Hart GW, Hanover JA. Partial cDNA sequence encoding a nuclear pore protein modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1988 85(24) 3200844
Abstract:
The nuclear pore complex contains a family of proteins ranging in molecular mass from 35 to 220 kDa that are glycosylated with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues. We sought to determine the primary sequence of a nuclear pore protein modified by O-linked GlcNAc. The major (62 kDa) nuclear pore glycoprotein (np62) was purified from rat liver nuclear envelopes by immunoaffinity chromatography and preparative gel electrophoresis. After CNBr fragmentation, a glycopeptide was isolated and microsequenced. An oligonucleotide probe based on this sequence information was used to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA library constructed from poly(A) mRNA of the rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5. A clone (B5) was isolated and shown to hybridize to a single 2.5-kilobase species in poly(A) mRNA from rat liver and FRTL-5. This insert was sequenced and found to contain a 691-base-pair cDNA encoding a 155-amino acid open reading frame. This open reading frame contained a CNBr fragment identical to the original glycopeptide sequence and a second CNBr fragment corresponding to a nonglycosylated peptide that was also isolated from the purified pore glycoprotein. The B5 cDNA produced a beta-galactosidase fusion protein of the size predicted by the open reading frame. Analysis of the residues making up a presumptive glycosylation site suggests that the sequence is unlike any known sites for enzymatic N- or O-linked glycosylation. The partial sequence of the 62-kDa nuclear pore glycoprotein shows little similarity to other characterized proteins and elucidates structural features of a member of the family of nuclear pore glycoproteins.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NUP62
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