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Zhu Y, Hart GW. Dual-specificity RNA aptamers enable manipulation of target-specific O-GlcNAcylation and unveil functions of O-GlcNAc on β-catenin. Cell 2023 186(2) 36626902
Abstract:
O-GlcNAc is a dynamic post-translational modification (PTM) that regulates protein functions. In studying the regulatory roles of O-GlcNAc, a major roadblock is the inability to change O-GlcNAcylation on a single protein at a time. Herein, we developed a dual RNA-aptamer-based approach that simultaneously targeted O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and β-catenin, the key transcription factor of the Wnt signaling pathway, to selectively increase O-GlcNAcylation of the latter without affecting other OGT substrates. Using the OGT/β-catenin dual-specificity aptamers, we found that O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin stabilizes the protein by inhibiting its interaction with β-TrCP. O-GlcNAc also increases β-catenin's interaction with EZH2, recruits EZH2 to promoters, and dramatically alters the transcriptome. Further, by coupling riboswitches or an inducible expression system to aptamers, we enabled inducible regulation of protein-specific O-GlcNAcylation. Together, our findings demonstrate the efficacy and versatility of dual-specificity aptamers for regulating O-GlcNAcylation on individual proteins.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
O42486
Species: Gallus gallus
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Hardivillé S, Banerjee PS, Selen Alpergin ES, Smith DM, Han G, Ma J, Talbot CC Jr, Hu P, Wolfgang MJ, Hart GW. TATA-Box Binding Protein O-GlcNAcylation at T114 Regulates Formation of the B-TFIID Complex and Is Critical for Metabolic Gene Regulation. Molecular cell 2020 77(5) 31866147
Abstract:
In eukaryotes, gene expression is performed by three RNA polymerases that are targeted to promoters by molecular complexes. A unique common factor, the TATA-box binding protein (TBP), is thought to serve as a platform to assemble pre-initiation complexes competent for transcription. Here, we describe a novel molecular mechanism of nutrient regulation of gene transcription by dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of TBP. We show that O-GlcNAcylation at T114 of TBP blocks its interaction with BTAF1, hence the formation of the B-TFIID complex, and its dynamic cycling on and off of DNA. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of TBPT114A CRISPR/Cas9-edited cells showed that loss of O-GlcNAcylation at T114 increases TBP binding to BTAF1 and directly impacts expression of 408 genes. Lack of O-GlcNAcylation at T114 is associated with a striking reprogramming of cellular metabolism induced by a profound modification of the transcriptome, leading to gross alterations in lipid storage.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
TBP
Species: Homo sapiens
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Ma J, Wang WH, Li Z, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hart GW. O-GlcNAc Site Mapping by Using a Combination of Chemoenzymatic Labeling, Copper-Free Click Chemistry, Reductive Cleavage, and Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry. Analytical chemistry 2019 91(4) 30657688
Abstract:
As a dynamic post-translational modification, O-linked β- N-acetylglucosamine ( O-GlcNAc) modification (i.e., O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins regulates many biological processes involving cellular metabolism and signaling. However, O-GlcNAc site mapping, a prerequisite for site-specific functional characterization, has been a challenge since its discovery. Herein we present a novel method for O-GlcNAc enrichment and site mapping. In this method, the O-GlcNAc moiety on peptides was labeled with UDP-GalNAz followed by copper-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition with a multifunctional reagent bearing a terminal cyclooctyne, a disulfide bridge, and a biotin handle. The tagged peptides were then released from NeutrAvidin beads upon reductant treatment, alkylated with (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride, and subjected to electron-transfer dissociation mass spectrometry analysis. After validation by using standard synthetic peptide gCTD and model protein α-crystallin, such an approach was applied to the site mapping of overexpressed TGF-β-activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 2 (TAB2), with four O-GlcNAc sites unambiguously identified. Our method provides a promising tool for the site-specific characterization of O-GlcNAcylation of important proteins.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
TAB2
Species: Homo sapiens
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Akimoto Y, Yan K, Miura Y, Tsumoto H, Toda T, Fukutomi T, Sugahara D, Kudo A, Arai T, Chiba Y, Kaname S, Hart GW, Endo T, Kawakami H. O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of β-actin Ser(199) in diabetic nephropathy. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 2019 317(5) 31566433
Abstract:
The function of actin is regulated by various posttranslational modifications. We have previously shown that in the kidneys of nonobese type 2 diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki rats, increased O-GlcNAcylation of β-actin protein is observed. It has also been reported that both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation occur on Ser199 of β-actin. However, their roles are not known. To elucidate their roles in diabetic nephropathy, we examined the rat kidney for changes in O-GlcNAcylation of Ser199 (gS199)-actin and in the phosphorylation of Ser199 (pS199)-actin. Both gS199- and pS199-actin molecules had an apparent molecular weight of 40 kDa and were localized as nonfilamentous actin in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Compared with the normal kidney, the immunostaining intensity of gS199-actin increased in podocytes of the glomeruli and in proximal tubules of the diabetic kidney, whereas that of pS199-actin did not change in podocytes but decreased in proximal tubules. We confirmed that the same results could be observed in the glomeruli of the human diabetic kidney. In podocytes of glomeruli cultured in the presence of the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor Thiamet G, increased O-GlcNAcylation was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the amount of filamentous actin and in morphological changes. Our present results demonstrate that dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of Ser199 occurred in diabetes, which may contribute partially to the causes of the morphological changes in the glomeruli and tubules. gS199- and pS199-actin will thus be useful for the pathological evaluation of diabetic nephropathy.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
ACTB
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Liu W, Han G, Yin Y, Jiang S, Yu G, Yang Q, Yu W, Ye X, Su Y, Yang Y, Hart GW, Sun H. AANL (Agrocybe aegerita lectin 2) is a new facile tool to probe for O-GlcNAcylation. Glycobiology 2018 28(6) 29562282
Abstract:
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is an important post-translational modification on serine or threonine of proteins, mainly observed in nucleus or cytoplasm. O-GlcNAcylation regulates many cell processes, including transcription, cell cycle, neural development and nascent polypeptide chains stabilization. However, the facile identification of O-GlcNAc is a major bottleneck in O-GlcNAcylation research. Herein, we report that a lectin, Agrocybe aegerita GlcNAc-specific lectin (AANL), also reported as AAL2, can be used as a powerful probe for O-GlcNAc identification. Glycan array analyses and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays show that AANL binds to GlcNAc with a dissociation constant (KD) of 94.6 μM, which is consistent with the result tested through isothiocyanate (ITC) assay reported before (Jiang S, Chen Y, Wang M, Yin Y, Pan Y, Gu B, Yu G, Li Y, Wong BH, Liang Y, et al. 2012. A novel lectin from Agrocybe aegerita shows high binding selectivity for terminal N-acetylglucosamine. Biochem J. 443:369-378.). Confocal imaging shows that AANL co-localizes extensively with NUP62, a heavily O-GlcNAcylated and abundant nuclear pore glycoprotein. Furthermore, O-GlcNAc-modified peptides could be effectively enriched in the late flow-through peak from simple samples by using affinity columns Sepharose 4B-AANL or POROS-AANL. Therefore, using AANL affinity column, we identified 28 high-confidence O-linked HexNAc-modified peptides mapped on 17 proteins involving diverse cellular progresses, including transcription, hydrolysis progress, urea cycle, alcohol metabolism and cell cycle. And most importantly, major proteins and sites were not annotated in the dbOGAP database. These results suggest that the AANL lectin is a new useful tool for enrichment and identification of O-GlcNAcylated proteins and peptides.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
FSIP2, OTU7B, CATB, CATD, GRN, ALDH2, TB182, MCM2, NUCB1, LAR4B, RPRD2, CPSM, TIM23, CATZ, CLIP2
Species: Mus musculus
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