Hardivillé S, Banerjee PS, Selen Alpergin ES, Smith DM, Han G, Ma J, Talbot CC Jr, Hu P, Wolfgang MJ, Hart GW.
TATA-Box Binding Protein O-GlcNAcylation at T114 Regulates Formation of the B-TFIID Complex and Is Critical for Metabolic Gene Regulation.
Abstract: In eukaryotes, gene expression is performed by three RNA polymerases that are targeted to promoters by molecular complexes. A unique common factor, the TATA-box binding protein (TBP), is thought to serve as a platform to assemble pre-initiation complexes competent for transcription. Here, we describe a novel molecular mechanism of nutrient regulation of gene transcription by dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of TBP. We show that O-GlcNAcylation at T114 of TBP blocks its interaction with BTAF1, hence the formation of the B-TFIID complex, and its dynamic cycling on and off of DNA. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of TBPT114A CRISPR/Cas9-edited cells showed that loss of O-GlcNAcylation at T114 increases TBP binding to BTAF1 and directly impacts expression of 408 genes. Lack of O-GlcNAcylation at T114 is associated with a striking reprogramming of cellular metabolism induced by a profound modification of the transcriptome, leading to gross alterations in lipid storage.
Ma J, Wang WH, Li Z, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hart GW.
O-GlcNAc Site Mapping by Using a Combination of Chemoenzymatic Labeling, Copper-Free Click Chemistry, Reductive Cleavage, and Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.
Abstract: As a dynamic post-translational modification, O-linked β- N-acetylglucosamine ( O-GlcNAc) modification (i.e., O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins regulates many biological processes involving cellular metabolism and signaling. However, O-GlcNAc site mapping, a prerequisite for site-specific functional characterization, has been a challenge since its discovery. Herein we present a novel method for O-GlcNAc enrichment and site mapping. In this method, the O-GlcNAc moiety on peptides was labeled with UDP-GalNAz followed by copper-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition with a multifunctional reagent bearing a terminal cyclooctyne, a disulfide bridge, and a biotin handle. The tagged peptides were then released from NeutrAvidin beads upon reductant treatment, alkylated with (3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride, and subjected to electron-transfer dissociation mass spectrometry analysis. After validation by using standard synthetic peptide gCTD and model protein α-crystallin, such an approach was applied to the site mapping of overexpressed TGF-β-activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 2 (TAB2), with four O-GlcNAc sites unambiguously identified. Our method provides a promising tool for the site-specific characterization of O-GlcNAcylation of important proteins.
Akimoto Y, Yan K, Miura Y, Tsumoto H, Toda T, Fukutomi T, Sugahara D, Kudo A, Arai T, Chiba Y, Kaname S, Hart GW, Endo T, Kawakami H.
O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of β-actin Ser199 in diabetic nephropathy.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology2019
Abstract: The function of actin is regulated by various posttranslational modifications. We have previously shown that in the kidneys of nonobese type 2 diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki rats, increased O-GlcNAcylation of β-actin protein is observed. It has also been reported that both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation occur on Ser199 of β-actin. However, their roles are not known. To elucidate their roles in diabetic nephropathy, we examined the rat kidney for changes in O-GlcNAcylation of Ser199 (gS199)-actin and in the phosphorylation of Ser199 (pS199)-actin. Both gS199- and pS199-actin molecules had an apparent molecular weight of 40 kDa and were localized as nonfilamentous actin in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Compared with the normal kidney, the immunostaining intensity of gS199-actin increased in podocytes of the glomeruli and in proximal tubules of the diabetic kidney, whereas that of pS199-actin did not change in podocytes but decreased in proximal tubules. We confirmed that the same results could be observed in the glomeruli of the human diabetic kidney. In podocytes of glomeruli cultured in the presence of the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor Thiamet G, increased O-GlcNAcylation was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the amount of filamentous actin and in morphological changes. Our present results demonstrate that dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of Ser199 occurred in diabetes, which may contribute partially to the causes of the morphological changes in the glomeruli and tubules. gS199- and pS199-actin will thus be useful for the pathological evaluation of diabetic nephropathy.
Liu W, Han G, Yin Y, Jiang S, Yu G, Yang Q, Yu W, Ye X, Su Y, Yang Y, Hart GW, Sun H.
AANL (Agrocybe aegerita lectin 2) is a new facile tool to probe for O-GlcNAcylation.
Abstract: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is an important post-translational modification on serine or threonine of proteins, mainly observed in nucleus or cytoplasm. O-GlcNAcylation regulates many cell processes, including transcription, cell cycle, neural development and nascent polypeptide chains stabilization. However, the facile identification of O-GlcNAc is a major bottleneck in O-GlcNAcylation research. Herein, we report that a lectin, Agrocybe aegerita GlcNAc-specific lectin (AANL), also reported as AAL2, can be used as a powerful probe for O-GlcNAc identification. Glycan array analyses and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays show that AANL binds to GlcNAc with a dissociation constant (KD) of 94.6 μM, which is consistent with the result tested through isothiocyanate (ITC) assay reported before (Jiang S, Chen Y, Wang M, Yin Y, Pan Y, Gu B, Yu G, Li Y, Wong BH, Liang Y, et al. 2012. A novel lectin from Agrocybe aegerita shows high binding selectivity for terminal N-acetylglucosamine. Biochem J. 443:369-378.). Confocal imaging shows that AANL co-localizes extensively with NUP62, a heavily O-GlcNAcylated and abundant nuclear pore glycoprotein. Furthermore, O-GlcNAc-modified peptides could be effectively enriched in the late flow-through peak from simple samples by using affinity columns Sepharose 4B-AANL or POROS-AANL. Therefore, using AANL affinity column, we identified 28 high-confidence O-linked HexNAc-modified peptides mapped on 17 proteins involving diverse cellular progresses, including transcription, hydrolysis progress, urea cycle, alcohol metabolism and cell cycle. And most importantly, major proteins and sites were not annotated in the dbOGAP database. These results suggest that the AANL lectin is a new useful tool for enrichment and identification of O-GlcNAcylated proteins and peptides.
Ma J, Banerjee P, Whelan SA, Liu T, Wei AC, Ramirez-Correa G, McComb ME, Costello CE, O'Rourke B, Murphy A, Hart GW.
Comparative Proteomics Reveals Dysregulated Mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation in Diabetic Hearts.
Journal of proteome research2016
Abstract: O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a post-translational modification on serine and threonine residues of many proteins, plays crucial regulatory roles in diverse biological events. As a nutrient sensor, O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins underlies the pathology of diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. However, mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation, especially in response to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes, has been poorly explored. We performed a comparative O-GlcNAc profiling of mitochondria from control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat hearts by using an improved β-elimination/Michael addition with isotopic DTT reagents (BEMAD) followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. In total, 86 mitochondrial proteins, involved in diverse pathways, were O-GlcNAcylated. Among them, many proteins have site-specific alterations in O-GlcNAcylation in response to diabetes, which suggests that protein O-GlcNAcylation is a novel layer of regulation mediating adaptive changes in mitochondrial metabolism during the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Ma J, Liu T, Wei AC, Banerjee P, O'Rourke B, Hart GW.
O-GlcNAcomic Profiling Identifies Widespread O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosamine Modification (O-GlcNAcylation) in Oxidative Phosphorylation System Regulating Cardiac Mitochondrial Function.
The Journal of biological chemistry2015
Abstract: Dynamic cycling of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on nucleocytoplasmic proteins serves as a nutrient sensor to regulate numerous biological processes. However, mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation and its effects on function are largely unexplored. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the proteome and O-GlcNAcome of cardiac mitochondria from rats acutely (12 h) treated without or with thiamet-G (TMG), a potent and specific inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase. We then determined the functional consequences in mitochondria isolated from the two groups. O-GlcNAcomic profiling finds that over 88 mitochondrial proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, with the oxidative phosphorylation system as a major target. Moreover, in comparison with controls, cardiac mitochondria from TMG-treated rats did not exhibit altered protein abundance but showed overall elevated O-GlcNAcylation of many proteins. However, O-GlcNAc was unexpectedly down-regulated at certain sites of specific proteins. Concomitantly, TMG treatment resulted in significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, ATP production rates, and enhanced threshold for permeability transition pore opening by Ca(2+). Our data reveal widespread and dynamic mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation, serving as a regulator to their function.
Ramirez-Correa GA, Ma J, Slawson C, Zeidan Q, Lugo-Fagundo NS, Xu M, Shen X, Gao WD, Caceres V, Chakir K, DeVine L, Cole RN, Marchionni L, Paolocci N, Hart GW, Murphy AM.
Removal of Abnormal Myofilament O-GlcNAcylation Restores Ca2+ Sensitivity in Diabetic Cardiac Muscle.
Abstract: Contractile dysfunction and increased deposition of O-linked β-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in cardiac proteins are a hallmark of the diabetic heart. However, whether and how this posttranslational alteration contributes to lower cardiac function remains unclear. Using a refined β-elimination/Michael addition with tandem mass tags (TMT)-labeling proteomic technique, we show that CpOGA, a bacterial analog of O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that cleaves O-GlcNAc in vivo, removes site-specific O-GlcNAcylation from myofilaments, restoring Ca(2+) sensitivity in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic cardiac muscles. We report that in control rat hearts, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) are mainly localized at the Z-line, whereas OGA is at the A-band. Conversely, in diabetic hearts O-GlcNAc levels are increased and OGT and OGA delocalized. Consistent changes were found in human diabetic hearts. STZ diabetic hearts display increased physical interactions of OGA with α-actin, tropomyosin, and myosin light chain 1, along with reduced OGT and increased OGA activities. Our study is the first to reveal that specific removal of O-GlcNAcylation restores myofilament response to Ca(2+) in diabetic hearts and that altered O-GlcNAcylation is due to the subcellular redistribution of OGT and OGA rather than to changes in their overall activities. Thus, preventing sarcomeric OGT and OGA displacement represents a new possible strategy for treating diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Bullen JW, Balsbaugh JL, Chanda D, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Neumann D, Hart GW.
Cross-talk between two essential nutrient-sensitive enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).
The Journal of biological chemistry2014
Abstract: Nutrient-sensitive pathways regulate both O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), cooperatively connecting metabolic homeostasis to regulation of numerous intracellular processes essential for life. Similar to phosphorylation, catalyzed by kinases such as AMPK, O-GlcNAcylation is a highly dynamic Ser/Thr-specific post-translational modification of nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins catalyzed exclusively by OGT. OGT and AMPK target a multitude of intracellular proteins, with the net effect to protect cells from the damaging effects of metabolic stress. Despite hundreds of studies demonstrating significant overlap in upstream and downstream signaling processes, no study has investigated if OGT and AMPK can directly regulate each other. We show acute activation of AMPK alters the substrate selectivity of OGT in several cell lines and nuclear localization of OGT in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Nuclear localization of OGT affects O-GlcNAcylation of numerous nuclear proteins and acetylation of Lys-9 on histone 3 in myotubes. AMPK phosphorylates Thr-444 on OGT in vitro; phosphorylation of Thr-444 is tightly associated with AMPK activity and nuclear localization of OGT in myotubes, and phospho-mimetic T444E-OGT exhibits altered substrate selectivity. Conversely, the α- and γ-subunits of AMPK are O-GlcNAcylated, O-GlcNAcylation of the γ1-subunit increases with AMPK activity, and acute inhibition of O-GlcNAc cycling disrupts activation of AMPK. We have demonstrated significant cross-talk between the O-GlcNAc and AMPK systems, suggesting OGT and AMPK may cooperatively regulate nutrient-sensitive intracellular processes that mediate cellular metabolism, growth, proliferation, and/or tissue function.
Erickson JR, Pereira L, Wang L, Han G, Ferguson A, Dao K, Copeland RJ, Despa F, Hart GW, Ripplinger CM, Bers DM.
Diabetic hyperglycaemia activates CaMKII and arrhythmias by O-linked glycosylation.
Abstract: Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is an enzyme with important regulatory functions in the heart and brain, and its chronic activation can be pathological. CaMKII activation is seen in heart failure, and can directly induce pathological changes in ion channels, Ca(2+) handling and gene transcription. Here, in human, rat and mouse, we identify a novel mechanism linking CaMKII and hyperglycaemic signalling in diabetes mellitus, which is a key risk factor for heart and neurodegenerative diseases. Acute hyperglycaemia causes covalent modification of CaMKII by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). O-GlcNAc modification of CaMKII at Ser 279 activates CaMKII autonomously, creating molecular memory even after Ca(2+) concentration declines. O-GlcNAc-modified CaMKII is increased in the heart and brain of diabetic humans and rats. In cardiomyocytes, increased glucose concentration significantly enhances CaMKII-dependent activation of spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release events that can contribute to cardiac mechanical dysfunction and arrhythmias. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAc signalling or genetic ablation of CaMKIIδ. In intact perfused hearts, arrhythmias were aggravated by increased glucose concentration through O-GlcNAc- and CaMKII-dependent pathways. In diabetic animals, acute blockade of O-GlcNAc inhibited arrhythmogenesis. Thus, O-GlcNAc modification of CaMKII is a novel signalling event in pathways that may contribute critically to cardiac and neuronal pathophysiology in diabetes and other diseases.
Ranuncolo SM, Ghosh S, Hanover JA, Hart GW, Lewis BA.
Evidence of the involvement of O-GlcNAc-modified human RNA polymerase II CTD in transcription in vitro and in vivo.
The Journal of biological chemistry2012
Abstract: The RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD), which serves as a scaffold to recruit machinery involved in transcription, is modified post-translationally. Although the O-GlcNAc modification of RNA polymerase II CTD was documented in 1993, its functional significance remained obscure. We show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) modified CTD serine residues 5 and 7. Drug inhibition of OGT and OGA (N-acetylglucosaminidase) blocked transcription during preinitiation complex assembly. Polymerase II and OGT co-immunoprecipitated, and OGT is a component of the preinitiation complex. OGT shRNA experiments showed that reduction of OGT causes a reduction in transcription and RNA polymerase II occupancy at several B-cell promoters. These data suggest that the cycling of O-GlcNAc on and off of polymerase II occurs during assembly of the preinitiation complex. Our results define unexpected roles for both the CTD and O-GlcNAc in the regulation of transcription initiation in higher eukaryotes.
Alfaro JF, Gong CX, Monroe ME, Aldrich JT, Clauss TR, Purvine SO, Wang Z, Camp DG 2nd, Shabanowitz J, Stanley P, Hart GW, Hunt DF, Yang F, Smith RD.
Tandem mass spectrometry identifies many mouse brain O-GlcNAcylated proteins including EGF domain-specific O-GlcNAc transferase targets.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2012
Abstract: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a reversible posttranslational modification of Ser and Thr residues on cytosolic and nuclear proteins of higher eukaryotes catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAc has recently been found on Notch1 extracellular domain catalyzed by EGF domain-specific OGT. Aberrant O-GlcNAc modification of brain proteins has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, understanding specific functions of O-GlcNAcylation in AD has been impeded by the difficulty in characterization of O-GlcNAc sites on proteins. In this study, we modified a chemical/enzymatic photochemical cleavage approach for enriching O-GlcNAcylated peptides in samples containing ∼100 μg of tryptic peptides from mouse cerebrocortical brain tissue. A total of 274 O-GlcNAcylated proteins were identified. Of these, 168 were not previously known to be modified by O-GlcNAc. Overall, 458 O-GlcNAc sites in 195 proteins were identified. Many of the modified residues are either known phosphorylation sites or located proximal to known phosphorylation sites. These findings support the proposed regulatory cross-talk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation. This study produced the most comprehensive O-GlcNAc proteome of mammalian brain tissue with both protein identification and O-GlcNAc site assignment. Interestingly, we observed O-β-GlcNAc on EGF-like repeats in the extracellular domains of five membrane proteins, expanding the evidence for extracellular O-GlcNAcylation by the EGF domain-specific OGT. We also report a GlcNAc-β-1,3-Fuc-α-1-O-Thr modification on the EGF-like repeat of the versican core protein, a proposed substrate of Fringe β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases.
Allison DF, Wamsley JJ, Kumar M, Li D, Gray LG, Hart GW, Jones DR, Mayo MW.
Modification of RelA by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine links glucose metabolism to NF-κB acetylation and transcription.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2012
Abstract: The molecular mechanisms linking glucose metabolism with active transcription remain undercharacterized in mammalian cells. Using nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as a glucose-responsive transcription factor, we show that cells use the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) to potentiate gene expression in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or etoposide. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that, upon induction, OGT localizes to NF-κB-regulated promoters to enhance RelA acetylation. Knockdown of OGT abolishes p300-mediated acetylation of RelA on K310, a posttranslational mark required for full NF-κB transcription. Mapping studies reveal T305 as an important residue required for attachment of the O-GlcNAc moiety on RelA. Furthermore, p300 fails to acetylate a full-length RelA(T305A) mutant, linking O-GlcNAc and acetylation events on NF-κB. Reconstitution of RelA null cells with the RelA(T305A) mutant illustrates the importance of this residue for NF-κB-dependent gene expression and cell survival. Our work provides evidence for a unique regulation where attachment of the O-GlcNAc moiety to RelA potentiates p300 acetylation and NF-κB transcription.
Tarrant MK, Rho HS, Xie Z, Jiang YL, Gross C, Culhane JC, Yan G, Qian J, Ichikawa Y, Matsuoka T, Zachara N, Etzkorn FA, Hart GW, Jeong JS, Blackshaw S, Zhu H, Cole PA.
Regulation of CK2 by phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation revealed by semisynthesis.
Nature chemical biology2012
Abstract: Protein serine-threonine kinase casein kinase II (CK2) is involved in a myriad of cellular processes including cell growth and proliferation through its phosphorylation of hundreds of substrates, yet how CK2 function is regulated is poorly understood. Here we report that the CK2 catalytic subunit CK2α is modified by O-linked β-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on Ser347, proximal to a cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation site (Thr344). We use protein semisynthesis to show that phosphorylation of Thr344 increases the cellular stability of CK2α by strengthening its interaction with Pin1, whereas glycosylation of Ser347 seems to be antagonistic to Thr344 phosphorylation and permissive to proteasomal degradation. By performing kinase assays with site-specifically phospho- and glyco-modified CK2α in combination with CK2β and Pin1 binding partners on human protein microarrays, we show that the kinase substrate selectivity of CK2 is modulated by these specific post-translational modifications. This study suggests how a promiscuous protein kinase can be regulated at multiple levels to achieve particular biological outputs.
Dias WB, Cheung WD, Hart GW.
O-GlcNAcylation of kinases.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications2012
Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that site-specific crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation and the O-GlcNAcylation of kinases play an important role in regulating cell signaling. However, relatively few kinases have been analyzed for O-GlcNAcylation. Here, we identify additional kinases that are substrates for O-GlcNAcylation using an in vitro OGT assay on a functional kinase array. Forty-two kinases were O-GlcNAcylated in vitro, representing 39% of the kinases on the array. In addition, we confirmed the in vivo O-GlcNAcylation of three identified kinases. Our results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation may directly regulate a substantial number of kinases and illustrates the increasingly complex relationship between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation in cellular signaling.
Wells L, Slawson C, Hart GW.
The E2F-1 associated retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product is modified by O-GlcNAc.
Abstract: The retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product (pRB) is a classical tumor suppressor. pRB regulates a number of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. One of the essential mechanisms by which pRB, and the related p107 and p130 family members, act is through its interactions with the E2F class of transcription factors. E2F-1 transcription is necessary for entry into S-phase during the cell-cycle. pRB binds E2F-1 and represses transcription via recruitment of a histone deacetylase complex and by preventing co-activator complexes from binding E2F-1. Current dogma suggests that phosphorylation of pRB during mid- to late-G1 leads to release of E2F-1 and E2F-1 dependent transcriptional activation of essential S-phase genes. Here we show that pRB, and the related p107 protein, are modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in an in vitro transcription/translation system. Furthermore, we show in vivo that pRB is more heavily glycosylated in G1 of the cell-cycle when pRB is known to be in an active, hypophosphorylated state. Finally, we demonstrate that E2F-1 associated pRB is modified by O-GlcNAc. These studies suggest that regulation of pRB function(s) may be controlled by dynamic O-GlcNAc modification, as well as phosphorylation.
Zachara NE, Molina H, Wong KY, Pandey A, Hart GW.
The dynamic stress-induced "O-GlcNAc-ome" highlights functions for O-GlcNAc in regulating DNA damage/repair and other cellular pathways.
Abstract: The modification of nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic and essential post-translational modification of metazoans. Numerous forms of cellular injury lead to elevated levels of O-GlcNAc in both in vivo and in vitro models, and elevation of O-GlcNAc levels before, or immediately after, the induction of cellular injury is protective in models of heat stress, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, ischemia reperfusion injury, and trauma hemorrhage. Together, these data suggest that O-GlcNAc is a regulator of the cellular stress response. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which O-GlcNAc regulates protein function leading to enhanced cell survival have not been identified. In order to determine how O-GlcNAc modulates stress tolerance in these models we have used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to determine the identity of proteins that undergo O-GlcNAcylation in response to heat shock. Numerous proteins with diverse functions were identified, including NF-90, RuvB-like 1 (Tip49α), RuvB-like 2 (Tip49β), and several COPII vesicle transport proteins. Many of these proteins bind double-stranded DNA-dependent protein kinase (PK), or double-stranded DNA breaks, suggesting a role for O-GlcNAc in regulating DNA damage signaling or repair. Supporting this hypothesis, we have shown that DNA-PK is O-GlcNAc modified in response to numerous forms of cellular stress.
Jokela TA, Makkonen KM, Oikari S, Kärnä R, Koli E, Hart GW, Tammi RH, Carlberg C, Tammi MI.
Cellular content of UDP-N-acetylhexosamines controls hyaluronan synthase 2 expression and correlates with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification of transcription factors YY1 and SP1.
The Journal of biological chemistry2011
Abstract: Hyaluronan, a high molecular mass polysaccharide on the vertebrate cell surface and extracellular matrix, is produced at the plasma membrane by hyaluronan synthases using UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcUA as substrates. The availability of these UDP-sugar substrates can limit the synthesis rate of hyaluronan. In this study, we show that the cellular level of UDP-HexNAc also controls hyaluronan synthesis by modulating the expression of HAS2 (hyaluronan synthase 2). Increasing UDP-HexNAc in HaCaT keratinocytes by adding glucosamine down-regulated HAS2 gene expression, whereas a decrease in UDP-HexNAc, realized by mannose treatment or siRNA for GFAT1 (glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1), enhanced expression of the gene. Tracing the UDP-HexNAc-initiated signal to the HAS2 promoter revealed no change in the binding of STAT3, NF-κB, and cAMP response element-binding protein, shown previously to mediate growth factor and cytokine signals on HAS2 expression. Instead, altered binding of SP1 and YY1 to the promoter correlated with cellular UDP-HexNAc content and inhibition of HAS2 expression. siRNA silencing of YY1 and SP1 confirmed their inhibitory effects on HAS2 expression. Reduced and increased levels of O-GlcNAc-modified SP1 and YY1 proteins were associated with stimulation or inhibition of HAS2 expression, respectively. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that, by regulating the level of protein O-GlcNAc modifications, cellular UDP-HexNAc content controls HAS2 transcription and decreases the effects on hyaluronan synthesis that would result from cellular fluctuations of this substrate.
Akimoto Y, Miura Y, Toda T, Wolfert MA, Wells L, Boons GJ, Hart GW, Endo T, Kawakami H.
Morphological changes in diabetic kidney are associated with increased O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins including α-actinin 4.
Abstract: The objective of the present study is to identify proteins that change in the extent of the modification with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) in the kidney from diabetic model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and to discuss the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and the pathological condition in diabetes.
Sakabe K, Wang Z, Hart GW.
Beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is part of the histone code.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2010
Abstract: Dynamic posttranslational modification of serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins by β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a regulator of cellular processes such as transcription, signaling, and protein-protein interactions. Like phosphorylation, O-GlcNAc cycles in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Although cycling of O-GlcNAc is catalyzed by only two highly conserved enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which adds the sugar, and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase), which hydrolyzes it, the targeting of these enzymes is highly specific and is controlled by myriad interacting subunits. Here, we demonstrate by multiple specific immunological and enzymatic approaches that histones, the proteins that package DNA within the nucleus, are O-GlcNAcylated in vivo. Histones also are substrates for OGT in vitro. We identify O-GlcNAc sites on histones H2A, H2B, and H4 using mass spectrometry. Finally, we show that histone O-GlcNAcylation changes during mitosis and with heat shock. Taken together, these data show that O-GlcNAc cycles dynamically on histones and can be considered part of the histone code.
Sakabe K, Hart GW.
O-GlcNAc transferase regulates mitotic chromatin dynamics.
The Journal of biological chemistry2010
Abstract: Mitosis must faithfully divide the genome such that each progeny inherits the same genetic material. DNA condensation is crucial in ensuring that chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle for segregation, preventing DNA breaks or constrictions from the contractile ring. Histones form an octameric complex of basic proteins important in regulating DNA organization and accessibility. Histone post-translational modifications are altered during mitosis, although the roles of these post-translational modifications remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), the enzyme catalyzing the addition of O-GlcNAc moieties to nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins at serine and threonine residues, regulates some aspects of mitotic chromatin dynamics. OGT protein amounts decrease during M phase. Modest overexpression of OGT alters mitotic histone post-translational modifications at Lys-9, Ser-10, Arg-17, and Lys-27 of histone H3. Overexpression of OGT also prevents mitotic phosphorylation of coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) and prevents its correct cellular localization during mitosis. Moreover, OGT overexpression results in an increase in abnormal chromosomal bridge formation. Together, these results show that regulating the amount of OGT during mitosis is important in ensuring correct chromosomal segregation during mitosis.
Zeidan Q, Wang Z, De Maio A, Hart GW.
O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes associate with the translational machinery and modify core ribosomal proteins.
Molecular biology of the cell2010
Abstract: Protein synthesis is globally regulated through posttranslational modifications of initiation and elongation factors. Recent high-throughput studies have identified translation factors and ribosomal proteins (RPs) as substrates for the O-GlcNAc modification. Here we determine the extent and abundance of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in translational preparations. O-GlcNAc is present on many proteins that form active polysomes. We identify twenty O-GlcNAcylated core RPs, of which eight are newly reported. We map sites of O-GlcNAc modification on four RPs (L6, L29, L32, and L36). RPS6, a component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, follows different dynamics of O-GlcNAcylation than nutrient-induced phosphorylation. We also show that both O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes OGT and OGAse strongly associate with cytosolic ribosomes. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that OGAse is present uniformly throughout the nucleus, whereas OGT is excluded from the nucleolus. Moreover, nucleolar stress only alters OGAse nuclear staining, but not OGT staining. Lastly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of OGT, but not of OGAse or GFP control, causes an accumulation of 60S subunits and 80S monosomes. Our results not only establish that O-GlcNAcylation extensively modifies RPs, but also suggest that O-GlcNAc play important roles in regulating translation and ribosome biogenesis.
Shi Y, Tomic J, Wen F, Shaha S, Bahlo A, Harrison R, Dennis JW, Williams R, Gross BJ, Walker S, Zuccolo J, Deans JP, Hart GW, Spaner DE.
Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation characterizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Abstract: O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) post-translational modifications originate from the activity of the hexosamine pathway, and are known to affect intracellular signaling processes. As aberrant responses to microenvironmental signals are a feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), O-GlcNAcylated protein levels were measured in primary CLL cells. In contrast to normal circulating and tonsillar B cells, CLL cells expressed high levels of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, including p53, c-myc and Akt. O-GlcNAcylation in CLL cells increased following activation with cytokines and through toll-like receptors (TLRs), or after loading with hexosamine pathway substrates. However, high baseline O-GlcNAc levels were associated with impaired signaling responses to TLR agonists, chemotherapeutic agents, B cell receptor crosslinking and mitogens. Indolent and aggressive clinical behavior of CLL cells were found to correlate with higher and lower O-GlcNAc levels, respectively. These findings suggest that intracellular O-GlcNAcylation is associated with the pathogenesis of CLL, which could potentially have therapeutic implications.
Whelan SA, Dias WB, Thiruneelakantapillai L, Lane MD, Hart GW.
Regulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)/AKT kinase-mediated insulin signaling by O-Linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
The Journal of biological chemistry2010
Abstract: Increased O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is associated with insulin resistance in muscle and adipocytes. Upon insulin treatment of insulin-responsive adipocytes, O-GlcNAcylation of several proteins is increased. Key insulin signaling proteins, including IRS-1, IRS-2, and PDK1, are substrates for OGT, suggesting potential O-GlcNAc control points within the pathway. To elucidate the roles of O-GlcNAc in dampening insulin signaling (Vosseller, K., Wells, L., Lane, M. D., and Hart, G. W. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99, 5313-5318), we focused on the pathway upstream of AKT. Increasing O-GlcNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreases phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) interactions with both IRS-1 and IRS-2. Elevated O-GlcNAc also reduces phosphorylation of the PI3K p85 binding motifs (YXXM) of IRS-1 and results in a concomitant reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation of Y(608)XXM in IRS-1, one of the two main PI3K p85 binding motifs. Additionally, insulin signaling stimulates the interaction of OGT with PDK1. We conclude that one of the steps at which O-GlcNAc contributes to insulin resistance is by inhibiting phosphorylation at the Y(608)XXM PI3K p85 binding motif in IRS-1 and possibly at PDK1 as well.
Wang Z, Udeshi ND, Slawson C, Compton PD, Sakabe K, Cheung WD, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hart GW.
Extensive crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation regulates cytokinesis.
Abstract: Like phosphorylation, the addition of O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a ubiquitous, reversible process that modifies serine and threonine residues on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Overexpression of the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc to target proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), perturbs cytokinesis and promotes polyploidy, but the molecular targets of OGT that are important for its cell cycle functions are unknown. Here, we identify 141 previously unknown O-GlcNAc sites on proteins that function in spindle assembly and cytokinesis. Many of these O-GlcNAcylation sites are either identical to known phosphorylation sites or in close proximity to them. Furthermore, we found that O-GlcNAcylation altered the phosphorylation of key proteins associated with the mitotic spindle and midbody. Forced overexpression of OGT increased the inhibitory phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and reduced the phosphorylation of CDK1 target proteins. The increased phosphorylation of CDK1 is explained by increased activation of its upstream kinase, MYT1, and by a concomitant reduction in the transcript for the CDK1 phosphatase, CDC25C. OGT overexpression also caused a reduction in both messenger RNA expression and protein abundance of Polo-like kinase 1, which is upstream of both MYT1 and CDC25C. The data not only illustrate the crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of proteins that are regulators of crucial signaling pathways but also uncover a mechanism for the role of O-GlcNAcylation in regulation of cell division.
Wang Z, Udeshi ND, O'Malley M, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Hart GW.
Enrichment and site mapping of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine by a combination of chemical/enzymatic tagging, photochemical cleavage, and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2010
Abstract: Numerous cellular processes are regulated by the reversible addition of either phosphate or O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Although sensitive methods exist for the enrichment and identification of protein phosphorylation sites, those for the enrichment of O-GlcNAc-containing peptides are lacking. Reported here is highly efficient methodology for the enrichment and characterization of O-GlcNAc sites from complex samples. In this method, O-GlcNAc-modified peptides are tagged with a novel biotinylation reagent, enriched by affinity chromatography, released from the solid support by photochemical cleavage, and analyzed by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. Using this strategy, eight O-GlcNAc sites were mapped from a tau-enriched sample from rat brain. Sites of GlcNAcylation were characterized on important neuronal proteins such as tau, synucleins, and methyl CpG-binding protein 2.