REFERENCES



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Ho SR, Wang K, Whisenhunt TR, Huang P, Zhu X, Kudlow JE, Paterson AJ. O-GlcNAcylation enhances FOXO4 transcriptional regulation in response to stress. FEBS letters 2010 584(1) 19932102
Abstract:
The FOXO4 transcription factor plays an important role in cell survival in response to oxidative stress. The regulation of FOXO4 is orchestrated by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination. Here, we demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation also contributes to the FOXO4-dependent oxidative stress response. We show that hydrogen peroxide treatment of HEK293 cells increases FOXO4 association with OGT, the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc to proteins, causing FOXO4 O-GlcNAcylation and enhanced transcriptional activity under acute oxidative stress. O-GlcNAcylation is known to be protective for cells under stress conditions, including oxidative stress. Our data provide a mechanism of FOXO4 anti-oxidative protection through O-GlcNAcylation.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
FOXO4
Species: Homo sapiens
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Wang K, Ho SR, Mao W, Huang P, Zhang F, Schwiebert EM, Kudlow JE, Paterson AJ. Increased O-GlcNAc causes disrupted lens fiber cell differentiation and cataracts. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009 387(1) 19577582
Abstract:
Diminished proteolytic functionality in the lens may cause cataracts. We have reported that O-GlcNAc is an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome. We hypothesize that in the lens there is a cause-and-effect relationship between proteasome inhibition by O-GlcNAc, and cataract formation. To demonstrate this, we established novel transgenic mouse models to over-express a dominant-negative form of O-GlcNAcase, GK-NCOAT, in the lens. Expression of GK-NCOAT suppresses removal of O-GlcNAc from proteins, resulting in increased levels of O-GlcNAc in the lenses of our transgenic mice, along with decreased proteasome function. We observed that transgenic mice developed markedly larger cataracts than controls and lens fiber cell denucleation was inhibited. Our study suggests that increased O-GlcNAc in the lens could lead to cataract formation and attenuation of lens fiber cell denucleation by inhibition of proteasome function. These findings may explain why cataract formation is a common complication of diabetes since O-GlcNAc is derived from glucose.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
PRS4
Species: Mus musculus
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Yang X, Ongusaha PP, Miles PD, Havstad JC, Zhang F, So WV, Kudlow JE, Michell RH, Olefsky JM, Field SJ, Evans RM. Phosphoinositide signalling links O-GlcNAc transferase to insulin resistance. Nature 2008 451(7181) 18288188
Abstract:
Glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to the post-translational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This tandem system serves as a nutrient sensor to couple systemic metabolic status to cellular regulation of signal transduction, transcription, and protein degradation. Here we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) harbours a previously unrecognized type of phosphoinositide-binding domain. After induction with insulin, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate recruits OGT from the nucleus to the plasma membrane, where the enzyme catalyses dynamic modification of the insulin signalling pathway by O-GlcNAc. This results in the alteration in phosphorylation of key signalling molecules and the attenuation of insulin signal transduction. Hepatic overexpression of OGT impairs the expression of insulin-responsive genes and causes insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. These findings identify a molecular mechanism by which nutritional cues regulate insulin signalling through O-GlcNAc, and underscore the contribution of this modification to the aetiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
INSR, IRS1
Species: Mus musculus
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Zhang F, Su K, Yang X, Bowe DB, Paterson AJ, Kudlow JE. O-GlcNAc modification is an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome. Cell 2003 115(6) 14675536
Abstract:
The ubiquitin proteasome system classically selects its substrates for degradation by tagging them with ubiquitin. Here, we describe another means of controlling proteasome function in a global manner. The 26S proteasome can be inhibited by modification with the enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). This reversible modification of the proteasome inhibits the proteolysis of the transcription factor Sp1 and a hydrophobic peptide through inhibition of the ATPase activity of 26S proteasomes. The Rpt2 ATPase in the mammalian proteasome 19S cap is modified by O-GlcNAc in vitro and in vivo and as its modification increases, proteasome function decreases. This mechanism may couple proteasomes to the general metabolic state of the cell. The O-GlcNAc modification of proteasomes may allow the organism to respond to its metabolic needs by controlling the availability of amino acids and regulatory proteins.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
SP1
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Yang X, Zhang F, Kudlow JE. Recruitment of O-GlcNAc transferase to promoters by corepressor mSin3A: coupling protein O-GlcNAcylation to transcriptional repression. Cell 2002 110(1) 12150998
Abstract:
Transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides at serine or threonine residues, yet the precise functional roles of this modification are largely unknown. Here, we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that catalyzes this posttranslational modification, interacts with a histone deacetylase complex by binding to the corepressor mSin3A. Functionally, OGT and mSin3A cooperatively repress transcription in parallel with histone deacetylation. We propose that mSin3A targets OGT to promoters to inactivate transcription factors and RNA polymerase II by O-GlcNAc modification, which acts in concert with histone deacetylation to promote gene silencing in an efficient and specific manner.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
HDAC1, SIN3A
Species: Homo sapiens
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Yang X, Su K, Roos MD, Chang Q, Paterson AJ, Kudlow JE. O-linkage of N-acetylglucosamine to Sp1 activation domain inhibits its transcriptional capability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001 98(12) 11371615
Abstract:
The posttranslational modification of eukaryotic intracellular proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides is essential for cell viability, yet its precise functional roles are largely unknown. O-GlcNAc transferase utilizes UDP-GlcNAc, the end product of hexosamine biosynthesis, to catalyze this modification. The availability of UDP-GlcNAc correlates with glycosylation levels of intracellular proteins as well as with transcriptional levels of some genes. Meanwhile, transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-GlcNAc. A linkage between transcription factor O-GlcNAcylation and transcriptional regulation therefore has been postulated. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation of a chimeric transcriptional activator containing the second activation domain of Sp1 decreases its transcriptional activity both in an in vitro transcription system and in living cells, which is in concert with our observation that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 activation domain blocks its in vitro and in vivo interactions with other Sp1 molecules and TATA-binding protein-associated factor II 110. Furthermore, overexpression of O-GlcNAc transferase specifically inhibits transcriptional activation by native Sp1 in cells. Thus, our studies provide direct evidence that O-GlcNAcylation of transcription factors is involved in transcriptional regulation.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
SP1
Species: Homo sapiens
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Han I, Oh ES, Kudlow JE. Responsiveness of the state of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification of nuclear pore protein p62 to the extracellular glucose concentration. The Biochemical journal 2000 350 Pt 1 10926833
Abstract:
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification has been described in many proteins, including nuclear pore glycoproteins. In the present study we investigated the effect of extracellular glucose on the level of modification of nuclear pore protein p62 by O-GlcNAc. We found that exposure of cells to a high concentration of glucose caused an increased level of modification of p62 with O-GlcNAc, whereas the modification of other proteins did not change detectably. The increased O-GlcNAc modification of p62 in response to glucose required the metabolism of glucose to glucosamine. The exposure of the cells to glucosamine itself also caused increased O-GlcNAc modification, whereas mannosamine and galactosamine did not. Furthermore, changes in glucose concentrations within the physiological range induced the O-GlcNAc modification in p62 in rat aortic smooth-muscle cells, indicating that this modification of p62 might occur in an intact animal. These results imply that the ambient glucose concentration has an impact on the level of O-GlcNAc modification of proteins such as p62, and that functional changes in some of these proteins might ensue.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NUP62
Species: Homo sapiens
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Roos MD, Su K, Baker JR, Kudlow JE. O glycosylation of an Sp1-derived peptide blocks known Sp1 protein interactions. Molecular and cellular biology 1997 17(11) 9343410
Abstract:
The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of proteins is dynamic and abundant in the nucleus and cytosol. Several transcription factors, including Sp1, have been shown to contain this modification; however, the functional role of O-GlcNAc in these proteins has not been determined. In this paper we describe the use of the previously characterized glutamine-rich transactivation domain of Sp1 (B-c) as a model to investigate the role of O-GlcNAc in Sp1's transcriptionally relevant protein-to-protein interactions with the TATA-binding-protein-associated factor (TAF110) and holo-Sp1. When the model Sp1 peptide was overexpressed in primate cells, this 97-amino-acid domain of Sp1 was found to contain a dominant O-GlcNAc residue at high stoichiometry, which allowed the mapping and mutagenesis of this glycosylation site. In vitro interaction studies between this segment of Sp1 and Drosophila TAF110 or holo-Sp1 indicate that the O-GlcNAc modification functions to inhibit the largely hydrophobic interactions between these proteins. In HeLa cells, the mutation at the mapped glycosylation site was permissive for transcriptional activation. We propose the hypothesis that the removal of O-GlcNAc from an interaction domain can be a signal for protein association. O-GlcNAc may thereby prevent untimely and ectopic interactions.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
SP1
Species: Homo sapiens
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Han I, Kudlow JE. Reduced O glycosylation of Sp1 is associated with increased proteasome susceptibility. Molecular and cellular biology 1997 17(5) 9111324
Abstract:
Sp1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that is particularly important for the regulation of TATA-less genes that encode housekeeping proteins. Most growth factors and receptors are also encoded by such genes. Sp1 is multiply O glycosylated by covalent linkage of the monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine and threonine residues. Based on an earlier observation that growth factor gene transcription can be regulated by glucose and glucosamine in vascular smooth muscle cells, we determined whether Sp1 glycosylation could be regulated and if this modification altered Sp1 function. We found that Sp1 becomes hyperglycosylated when cells are exposed to 5 mM glucosamine, whereas under glucose starvation, stimulation with cyclic AMP (cAMP) results in nearly complete deglycosylation of this protein. Correlating with this hypoglycosylated state, Sp1 is rapidly proteolytically degraded by an enzyme(s) that can be inhibited by specific proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and LLnL. Treatment of cells with glucose or glucosamine protects Sp1 from cAMP-mediated degradation, whereas blockade of glucosamine synthesis abrogates glucose but not glucosamine protection. This effect on Sp1 is specific, in that the Stat-3 and E2F transcription factors did not undergo degradation under these conditions. The O-GlcNAc modification of Sp1 may play a role as a nutritional checkpoint. In the absence of adequate nutrition, Sp1 becomes hypoglycosylated and thereby subject to proteasome degradation. This process could potentially result in reduced general transcription, thereby conserving nutrients.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
SP1, SP1
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