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Wong KKL, Liu TW, Parker JM, Sinclair DAR, Chen YY, Khoo KH, Vocadlo DJ, Verheyen EM. The nutrient sensor OGT regulates Hipk stability and tumorigenic-like activities in Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2020 117(4) 31932432
Abstract:
Environmental cues such as nutrients alter cellular behaviors by acting on a wide array of molecular sensors inside cells. Of emerging interest is the link observed between effects of dietary sugars on cancer proliferation. Here, we identify the requirements of hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) for Drosophila homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (Hipk)-induced growth abnormalities in response to a high sugar diet. On a normal diet, OGT is both necessary and sufficient for inducing Hipk-mediated tumor-like growth. We further show that OGT maintains Hipk protein stability by blocking its proteasomal degradation and that Hipk is O-GlcNAcylated by OGT. In mammalian cells, human HIPK2 proteins accumulate posttranscriptionally upon OGT overexpression. Mass spectrometry analyses reveal that HIPK2 is at least O-GlcNAc modified at S852, T1009, and S1147 residues. Mutations of these residues reduce HIPK2 O-GlcNAcylation and stability. Together, our data demonstrate a conserved role of OGT in positively regulating the protein stability of HIPKs (fly Hipk and human HIPK2), which likely permits the nutritional responsiveness of HIPKs.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
HIPK2
Species: Homo sapiens
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Tan HY, Eskandari R, Shen D, Zhu Y, Liu TW, Willems LI, Alteen MG, Madden Z, Vocadlo DJ. Direct One-Step Fluorescent Labeling of O-GlcNAc-Modified Proteins in Live Cells Using Metabolic Intermediates. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018 140(45) 30296064
Abstract:
The modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine ( O-GlcNAc) by the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) has emerged as an important regulator of cellular physiology. Metabolic labeling strategies to monitor O-GlcNAcylation in cells have proven of great value for uncovering the molecular roles of O-GlcNAc. These strategies rely on two-step labeling procedures, which limits the scope of experiments that can be performed. Here, we report on the creation of fluorescent uridine 5'-diphospho- N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) analogues in which the N-acyl group of glucosamine is modified with a suitable linker and fluorophore. Using human OGT, we show these donor sugar substrates permit direct monitoring of OGT activity on protein substrates in vitro. We show that feeding cells with a corresponding fluorescent metabolic precursor for the last step of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) leads to its metabolic assimilation and labeling of O-GlcNAcylated proteins within live cells. This one-step metabolic feeding strategy permits labeling of O-GlcNAcylated proteins with a fluorescent glucosamine-nitrobenzoxadiazole (GlcN-NBD) conjugate that accumulates in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Because no genetic engineering of cells is required, we anticipate this strategy should be generally amenable to studying the roles of O-GlcNAc in cellular physiology as well as to gain an improved understanding of the regulation of OGT within cells. The further expansion of this one-step in-cell labeling strategy should enable performing a range of experiments including two-color pulse chase experiments and monitoring OGT activity on specific protein substrates in live cells.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NU214, NUP62, NU153, KCC4
Species: Homo sapiens
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Shen DL, Liu TW, Zandberg W, Clark T, Eskandari R, Alteen MG, Tan HY, Zhu Y, Cecioni S, Vocadlo D. Catalytic Promiscuity of O-GlcNAc Transferase Enables Unexpected Metabolic Engineering of Cytoplasmic Proteins with 2-Azido-2-deoxy-glucose. ACS chemical biology 2017 12(1) 27935279
Abstract:
O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the installation of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) O-linked to nucleocytoplasmic proteins (O-GlcNAc) within multicellular eukaryotes. OGT shows surprising tolerance for structural changes in the sugar component of its nucleotide sugar donor substrate, uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). Here, we find that OGT uses UDP-glucose to install O-linked glucose (O-Glc) onto proteins only 25-fold less efficiently than O-GlcNAc. Spurred by this observation, we show that OGT transfers 2-azido-2-deoxy-d-glucose (GlcAz) in vitro from UDP-GlcAz to proteins. Further, feeding cells with per-O-acetyl GlcAz (AcGlcAz), in combination with inhibition or inducible knockout of OGT, shows OGT-dependent modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins with O-GlcAz as detected using microscopy, immunoblot, and proteomics. We find that O-GlcAz is reversible within cells, and an unidentified cellular enzyme exists to cleave O-Glc that can also process O-GlcAz. We anticipate that AcGlcAz will prove to be a useful tool to study the O-GlcNAc modification. We also speculate that, given the high concentration of UDP-Glc within certain mammalian tissues, O-Glc may exist within mammals and serve as a physiologically relevant modification.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A0A0D9R5K0, A0A0D9SE53, TAU, NUP62, TAB1, KCC4
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Liu TW, Myschyshyn M, Sinclair DA, Cecioni S, Beja K, Honda BM, Morin RD, Vocadlo DJ. Genome-wide chemical mapping of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature chemical biology 2017 13(2) 27918560
Abstract:
N-Acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to nucleocytoplasmic proteins (O-GlcNAc) is implicated in the regulation of gene expression in organisms, from humans to Drosophila melanogaster. Within Drosophila, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is one of the Polycomb group proteins (PcGs) that act through Polycomb group response elements (PREs) to silence homeotic (HOX) and other PcG target genes. Using Drosophila, we identify new O-GlcNAcylated PcG proteins and develop an antibody-free metabolic feeding approach to chemoselectively map genomic loci enriched in O-GlcNAc using next-generation sequencing. We find that O-GlcNAc is distributed to specific genomic loci both in cells and in vivo. Many of these loci overlap with PREs, but O-GlcNAc is also present at other loci lacking PREs. Loss of OGT leads to altered gene expression not only at loci containing PREs but also at loci lacking PREs, including several heterochromatic genes. These data suggest that O-GlcNAc acts through multiple mechanisms to regulate gene expression in Drosophila.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
PHO, HCF
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Zhu Y, Liu TW, Madden Z, Yuzwa SA, Murray K, Cecioni S, Zachara N, Vocadlo DJ. Post-translational O-GlcNAcylation is essential for nuclear pore integrity and maintenance of the pore selectivity filter. Journal of molecular cell biology 2016 8(1) 26031751
Abstract:
O-glycosylation of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is conserved within metazoans. Many nucleoporins (Nups) comprising the NPC are constitutively O-GlcNAcylated, but the functional role of this modification remains enigmatic. We show that loss of O-GlcNAc, induced by either inhibition of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) or deletion of the gene encoding OGT, leads to decreased cellular levels of a number of natively O-GlcNAcylated Nups. Loss of O-GlcNAc enables increased ubiquitination of these Nups and their increased proteasomal degradation. The decreased half-life of these deglycosylated Nups manifests in their gradual loss from the NPC and a downstream malfunction of the nuclear pore selective permeability barrier in both dividing and post-mitotic cells. These findings define a critical role of O-GlcNAc modification of the NPC in maintaining its composition and the function of the selectivity filter. The results implicate NPC glycosylation as a regulator of NPC function and reveal the role of conserved glycosylation of the NPC among metazoans.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
NUP62
Species: Mus musculus
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