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Escobar EE, Seeley EH, Serrano-Negrón JE, Vocadlo DJ, Brodbelt JS. In Situ Imaging of O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosamine Using On-Tissue Hydrolysis and MALDI Mass Spectrometry. Cancers 2023 15(4) 36831567
Abstract:
Post-translational O-glycosylation of proteins via the addition of N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a regulator of many aspects of cellular physiology. Processes driven by perturbed dynamics of O-GlcNAcylation modification have been implicated in cancer development. Variability in O-GlcNAcylation is emerging as a metabolic biomarker of many cancers. Here, we evaluate the use of MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to visualize the location of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in tissue sections by mapping GlcNAc that has been released by the enzymatic hydrolysis of glycoproteins using an O-GlcNAc hydrolase. We use this strategy to monitor O-GlcNAc within hepatic VX2 tumor tissue. We show that increased O-GlcNAc is found within both viable tumor and tumor margin regions, implicating GlcNAc in tumor progression.
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González-Cuesta M, Sidhu P, Ashmus RA, Males A, Proceviat C, Madden Z, Rogalski JC, Busmann JA, Foster LJ, García Fernández JM, Davies GJ, Ortiz Mellet C, Vocadlo DJ. Bicyclic Picomolar OGA Inhibitors Enable Chemoproteomic Mapping of Its Endogenous Post-translational Modifications. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2022 144(2) 34985906
Abstract:
Owing to its roles in human health and disease, the modification of nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (O-GlcNAc) has emerged as a topic of great interest. Despite the presence of O-GlcNAc on hundreds of proteins within cells, only two enzymes regulate this modification. One of these enzymes is O-GlcNAcase (OGA), a dimeric glycoside hydrolase that has a deep active site cleft in which diverse substrates are accommodated. Chemical tools to control OGA are emerging as essential resources for helping to decode the biochemical and cellular functions of the O-GlcNAc pathway. Here we describe rationally designed bicyclic thiazolidine inhibitors that exhibit superb selectivity and picomolar inhibition of human OGA. Structures of these inhibitors in complex with human OGA reveal the basis for their exceptional potency and show that they extend out of the enzyme active site cleft. Leveraging this structure, we create a high affinity chemoproteomic probe that enables simple one-step purification of endogenous OGA from brain and targeted proteomic mapping of its post-translational modifications. These data uncover a range of new modifications, including some that are less-known, such as O-ubiquitination and N-formylation. We expect that these inhibitors and chemoproteomics probes will prove useful as fundamental tools to decipher the mechanisms by which OGA is regulated and directed to its diverse cellular substrates. Moreover, the inhibitors and structures described here lay out a blueprint that will enable the creation of chemical probes and tools to interrogate OGA and other carbohydrate active enzymes.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
E1BQ16
Species: Bos taurus
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Meek RW, Blaza JN, Busmann JA, Alteen MG, Vocadlo DJ, Davies GJ. Cryo-EM structure provides insights into the dimer arrangement of the O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase OGT. Nature communications 2021 12(1) 34764280
Abstract:
The O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine modification is a core signalling mechanism, with erroneous patterns leading to cancer and neurodegeneration. Although thousands of proteins are subject to this modification, only a single essential glycosyltransferase catalyses its installation, the O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT. Previous studies have provided truncated structures of OGT through X-ray crystallography, but the full-length protein has never been observed. Here, we report a 5.3 Å cryo-EM model of OGT. We show OGT is a dimer, providing a structural basis for how some X-linked intellectual disability mutations at the interface may contribute to disease. We observe that the catalytic section of OGT abuts a 13.5 tetratricopeptide repeat unit region and find the relative positioning of these sections deviate from the previously proposed, X-ray crystallography-based model. We also note that OGT exhibits considerable heterogeneity in tetratricopeptide repeat units N-terminal to the dimer interface with repercussions for how OGT binds protein ligands and partners.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
TAB1
Species: Homo sapiens
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Zhu Y, Willems LI, Salas D, Cecioni S, Wu WB, Foster LJ, Vocadlo DJ. Tandem Bioorthogonal Labeling Uncovers Endogenous Cotranslationally O-GlcNAc Modified Nascent Proteins. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2020 142(37) 32870666
Abstract:
Hundreds of nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins within multicellular eukaryotes have hydroxyl groups of specific serine and threonine residues modified by the monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). This modification, known as O-GlcNAc, has emerged as a central regulator of both cell physiology and human health. A key emerging function of O-GlcNAc appears to be to regulate cellular protein homeostasis. We previously showed, using overexpressed model proteins, that O-GlcNAc modification can occur cotranslationally and that this process prevents premature degradation of such nascent polypeptide chains. Here, we use tandem metabolic engineering strategies to label endogenously occurring nascent polypeptide chains within cells using O-propargyl-puromycin (OPP) and target the specific subset of nascent chains that are cotranslationally glycosylated with O-GlcNAc by metabolic saccharide engineering using tetra-O-acetyl-2-N-azidoacetyl-2-deoxy-d-galactopyranose (Ac4GalNAz). Using various combinations of sequential chemoselective ligation strategies, we go on to tag these analytes with a series of labels, allowing us to define conditions that enable their robust labeling. Two-step enrichment of these glycosylated nascent chains, combined with shotgun proteomics, allows us to identify a set of endogenous cotranslationally O-GlcNAc modified proteins. Using alternative targeted methods, we examine three of these identified proteins and further validate their cotranslational O-GlcNAcylation. These findings detail strategies to enable isolation and identification of extremely low abundance endogenous analytes present within complex protein mixtures. Moreover, this work opens the way to studies directed at understanding the roles of O-GlcNAc and other cotranslational protein modifications and should stimulate an improved understanding of the role of O-GlcNAc in cytoplasmic protein quality control and proteostasis.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
P121C, PSD11, <