Ma Z, Chalkley RJ, Vosseller K.
Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation activates nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling through interplay with phosphorylation and acetylation.
The Journal of biological chemistry2017
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation is the covalent addition of an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) sugar moiety to hydroxyl groups of serine/threonine residues of cytosolic and nuclear proteins. O-GlcNAcylation, analogous to phosphorylation, plays critical roles in gene expression through direct modification of transcription factors, such as NF-κB. Aberrantly increased NF-κB O-GlcNAcylation has been linked to NF-κB constitutive activation and cancer development. Therefore, it is of a great biological and clinical significance to dissect the molecular mechanisms that tune NF-κB activity. Recently, we and others have shown that O-GlcNAcylation affects the phosphorylation and acetylation of NF-κB subunit p65/RelA. However, the mechanism of how O-GlcNAcylation activates NF-κB signaling through phosphorylation and acetylation is not fully understood. In this study, we mapped O-GlcNAcylation sites of p65 at Thr-305, Ser-319, Ser-337, Thr-352, and Ser-374. O-GlcNAcylation of p65 at Thr-305 and Ser-319 increased CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300-dependent activating acetylation of p65 at Lys-310, contributing to NF-κB transcriptional activation. Moreover, elevation of O-GlcNAcylation by overexpression of OGT increased the expression of p300, IKKα, and IKKβ and promoted IKK-mediated activating phosphorylation of p65 at Ser-536, contributing to NF-κB activation. In addition, we also identified phosphorylation of p65 at Thr-308, which might impair the O-GlcNAcylation of p65 at Thr-305. These results indicate mechanisms through which both non-pathological and oncogenic O-GlcNAcylation regulate NF-κB signaling through interplay with phosphorylation and acetylation.
Skorobogatko Y, Landicho A, Chalkley RJ, Kossenkov AV, Gallo G, Vosseller K.
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) site thr-87 regulates synapsin I localization to synapses and size of the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles.
The Journal of biological chemistry2014
Abstract: O-GlcNAc is a carbohydrate modification found on cytosolic and nuclear proteins. Our previous findings implicated O-GlcNAc in hippocampal presynaptic plasticity. An important mechanism in presynaptic plasticity is the establishment of the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles (RPSV). Dynamic association of synapsin I with synaptic vesicles (SVs) regulates the size and release of RPSV. Disruption of synapsin I function results in reduced size of the RPSV, increased synaptic depression, memory deficits, and epilepsy. Here, we investigate whether O-GlcNAc directly regulates synapsin I function in presynaptic plasticity. We found that synapsin I is modified by O-GlcNAc during hippocampal synaptogenesis in the rat. We identified three novel O-GlcNAc sites on synapsin I, two of which are known Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation sites. All O-GlcNAc sites mapped within the regulatory regions on synapsin I. Expression of synapsin I where a single O-GlcNAc site Thr-87 was mutated to alanine in primary hippocampal neurons dramatically increased localization of synapsin I to synapses, increased density of SV clusters along axons, and the size of the RPSV, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of synapsin I at Thr-87 may be a mechanism to modulate presynaptic plasticity. Thr-87 is located within an amphipathic lipid-packing sensor (ALPS) motif, which participates in targeting of synapsin I to synapses by contributing to the binding of synapsin I to SVs. We discuss the possibility that O-GlcNAcylation of Thr-87 interferes with folding of the ALPS motif, providing a means for regulating the association of synapsin I with SVs as a mechanism contributing to synapsin I localization and RPSV generation.
Ma Z, Vocadlo DJ, Vosseller K.
Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is anti-apoptotic and maintains constitutive NF-κB activity in pancreatic cancer cells.
The Journal of biological chemistry2013
Abstract: Cancer cell metabolic reprogramming includes a shift in energy production from oxidative phosphorylation to less efficient glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen (Warburg effect) and use of glutamine for increased biosynthetic needs. This necessitates greatly increased glucose and glutamine uptake, both of which enter the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). The HBP end product UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is used in enzymatic post-translational modification of many cytosolic and nuclear proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Here, we observed increased HBP flux and hyper-O-GlcNAcylation in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC hyper-O-GlcNAcylation was associated with elevation of OGT and reduction of the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc (OGA). Reducing hyper-O-GlcNAcylation had no effect on non-transformed pancreatic epithelial cell growth, but inhibited PDAC cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, orthotopic tumor growth, and triggered apoptosis. PDAC is supported by oncogenic NF-κB transcriptional activity. The NF-κB p65 subunit and upstream kinases IKKα/IKKβ were O-GlcNAcylated in PDAC. Reducing hyper-O-GlcNAcylation decreased PDAC cell p65 activating phosphorylation (S536), nuclear translocation, NF-κB transcriptional activity, and target gene expression. Conversely, mimicking PDAC hyper-O-GlcNAcylation through pharmacological inhibition of OGA suppressed suspension culture-induced apoptosis and increased IKKα and p65 O-GlcNAcylation, accompanied by activation of NF-κB signaling. Finally, reducing p65 O-GlcNAcylation specifically by mutating two p65 O-GlcNAc sites (T322A and T352A) attenuated the induction of PDAC cell anchorage-independent growth. Our data indicate that hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is anti-apoptotic and contributes to NF-κB oncogenic activation in PDAC.
Yuzwa SA, Shan X, Macauley MS, Clark T, Skorobogatko Y, Vosseller K, Vocadlo DJ.
Increasing O-GlcNAc slows neurodegeneration and stabilizes tau against aggregation.
Nature chemical biology2012
Abstract: Oligomerization of tau is a key process contributing to the progressive death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease. Tau is modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), and O-GlcNAc can influence tau phosphorylation in certain cases. We therefore speculated that increasing tau O-GlcNAc could be a strategy to hinder pathological tau-induced neurodegeneration. Here we found that treatment of hemizygous JNPL3 tau transgenic mice with an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor increased tau O-GlcNAc, hindered formation of tau aggregates and decreased neuronal cell loss. Notably, increases in tau O-GlcNAc did not alter tau phosphorylation in vivo. Using in vitro biochemical aggregation studies, we found that O-GlcNAc modification, on its own, hinders tau oligomerization. O-GlcNAc also inhibits thermally induced aggregation of an unrelated protein, TAK-1 binding protein, suggesting that a basic biochemical function of O-GlcNAc may be to prevent protein aggregation. These results also suggest O-GlcNAcase as a potential therapeutic target that could hinder progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Yuzwa SA, Yadav AK, Skorobogatko Y, Clark T, Vosseller K, Vocadlo DJ.
Mapping O-GlcNAc modification sites on tau and generation of a site-specific O-GlcNAc tau antibody.
Abstract: The microtubule-associated protein tau is known to be post-translationally modified by the addition of N-acetyl-D: -glucosamine monosaccharides to certain serine and threonine residues. These O-GlcNAc modification sites on tau have been challenging to identify due to the inherent complexity of tau from mammalian brains and the fact that the O-GlcNAc modification typically has substoichiometric occupancy. Here, we describe a method for the production of recombinant O-GlcNAc modified tau and, using this tau, we have mapped sites of O-GlcNAc on tau at Thr-123 and Ser-400 using mass spectrometry. We have also detected the presence of a third O-GlcNAc site on either Ser-409, Ser-412, or Ser-413. Using this information we have raised a rabbit polyclonal IgG antibody (3925) that detects tau O-GlcNAc modified at Ser-400. Further, using this antibody we have detected the Ser-400 tau O-GlcNAc modification in rat brain, which confirms the validity of this in vitro mapping approach. The identification of these O-GlcNAc sites on tau and this antibody will enable both in vivo and in vitro experiments designed to understand the possible functional roles of O-GlcNAc on tau.
Skorobogatko YV, Deuso J, Adolf-Bryfogle J, Nowak MG, Gong Y, Lippa CF, Vosseller K.
Human Alzheimer's disease synaptic O-GlcNAc site mapping and iTRAQ expression proteomics with ion trap mass spectrometry.
Abstract: Neuronal synaptic functional deficits are linked to impaired learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently demonstrated that O-GlcNAc, a novel cytosolic and nuclear carbohydrate post-translational modification, is enriched at neuronal synapses and positively regulates synaptic plasticity linked to learning and memory in mice. Reduced levels of O-GlcNAc have been observed in AD, suggesting a possible link to deficits in synaptic plasticity. Using lectin enrichment and mass spectrometry, we mapped several human cortical synaptic O-GlcNAc modification sites. Overlap in patterns of O-GlcNAcation between mouse and human appears to be high, as previously mapped mouse synaptic O-GlcNAc sites in Bassoon, Piccolo, and tubulin polymerization promoting protein p25 were identified in human. Novel O-GlcNAc modification sites were identified on Mek2 and RPN13/ADRM1. Mek2 is a signaling component of the Erk 1/2 pathway involved in synaptic plasticity. RPN13 is a component of the proteasomal degradation pathway. The potential interplay of phosphorylation with mapped O-GlcNAc sites, and possible implication of those sites in synaptic plasticity in normal versus AD states is discussed. iTRAQ is a powerful differential isotopic quantitative approach in proteomics. Pulsed Q dissociation (PQD) is a recently introduced fragmentation strategy that enables detection of low mass iTRAQ reporter ions in ion trap mass spectrometry. We optimized LTQ ion trap settings for PQD-based iTRAQ quantitation and demonstrated its utility in O-GlcNAc site mapping. Using iTRAQ, abnormal synaptic expression levels of several proteins previously implicated in AD pathology were observed in addition to novel changes in synaptic specific protein expression including Synapsin II.
Akimoto Y, Hart GW, Wells L, Vosseller K, Yamamoto K, Munetomo E, Ohara-Imaizumi M, Nishiwaki C, Nagamatsu S, Hirano H, Kawakami H.
Elevation of the post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine leads to deterioration of the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreas of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.
Abstract: Many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are O-glycosylated on serine or threonine residues with the monosaccharide beta-N-acetylglucosamine, which is then termed O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). It has been shown that abnormal O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins is one of the causes of insulin resistance and diabetic complications. In this study, in order to examine the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation of proteins and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in noninsulin-dependent type (type 2) diabetes, we investigated the level of O-GlcNAcylation of proteins, especially that of PDX-1, and the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, which are an animal model of type-2 diabetes. By immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase protein and O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in whole pancreas and islets of Langerhans of 15-week-old diabetic GK rats and nondiabetic Wistar rats was examined. The expression of O-GlcNAc transferase at the protein level and O-GlcNAc transferase activity were increased significantly in the diabetic pancreas and islets. The diabetic pancreas and islets also showed an increase in total cellular O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAcylation of PDX-1 was also increased. In the diabetic GK rats, significant increases in the immunoreactivities of both O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase were observed. PUGNAc, an inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, induced an elevation of O-GlcNAc level and a decrease of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. These results indicate that elevation of the O-GlcNAcylation of proteins leads to deterioration of insulin secretion in the pancreas of diabetic GK rats, further providing evidence for the role of O-GlcNAc in the insulin secretion.
Vosseller K, Trinidad JC, Chalkley RJ, Specht CG, Thalhammer A, Lynn AJ, Snedecor JO, Guan S, Medzihradszky KF, Maltby DA, Schoepfer R, Burlingame AL.
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine proteomics of postsynaptic density preparations using lectin weak affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2006
Abstract: O-GlcNAc is a widespread dynamic carbohydrate modification of cytosolic and nuclear proteins with features analogous to phosphorylation. O-GlcNAc acts critically in many cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein degradation, and regulation of gene expression. However, the study of its specific regulatory functions has been limited by difficulties in mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification. We report methods for direct enrichment and identification of in vivo O-GlcNAc-modified peptides through lectin weak affinity chromatography (LWAC) and mass spectrometry. The effectiveness of this strategy on complex peptide mixtures was demonstrated through enrichment of 145 unique O-GlcNAc-modified peptides from a postsynaptic density preparation. 65 of these O-GlcNAc-modified peptides were sequenced and belonged to proteins with diverse functions in synaptic transmission. Beta-elimination/Michael addition, MS(3) on O-GlcNAc neutral loss ions, and electron capture dissociation were shown to facilitate analysis of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides/sites from lectin weak affinity chromatography enriched postsynaptic density samples. Bassoon and Piccolo, proteins critical to synapse assembly and vesicle docking, were extensively modified by O-GlcNAc. In some cases, O-GlcNAc was mapped to peptides previously identified as phosphorylated, indicating potential interplay between these modifications. Shared substrate amino acid context was apparent in subsets of O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, including "PVST" and a novel "TTA" motif (two hydroxyl-containing amino acids adjacent to an alanine). The results suggest specific roles for O-GlcNAc modification in synaptic transmission, establish a basis for site-specific regulatory studies, and provide methods that will facilitate O-GlcNAc proteome analysis across a wide variety of cells and tissues.
Slawson C, Zachara NE, Vosseller K, Cheung WD, Lane MD, Hart GW.
Perturbations in O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine protein modification cause severe defects in mitotic progression and cytokinesis.
The Journal of biological chemistry2005
Abstract: The dynamic modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins with O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a regulatory post-translational modification that is rapidly responsive to morphogens, hormones, nutrients, and cellular stress. Here we show that O-GlcNAc is an important regulator of the cell cycle. Increased O-GlcNAc (pharmacologically or genetically) results in growth defects linked to delays in G2/M progression, altered mitotic phosphorylation, and cyclin expression. Overexpression of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc, induces a mitotic exit phenotype accompanied by a delay in mitotic phosphorylation, altered cyclin expression, and pronounced disruption in nuclear organization. Overexpression of the O-GlcNAc transferase, the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc, results in a polyploid phenotype with faulty cytokinesis. Notably, O-GlcNAc transferase is concentrated at the mitotic spindle and midbody at M phase. These data suggest that dynamic O-GlcNAc processing is a pivotal regulatory component of the cell cycle, controlling cell cycle progression by regulating mitotic phosphorylation, cyclin expression, and cell division.
Vosseller K, Hansen KC, Chalkley RJ, Trinidad JC, Wells L, Hart GW, Burlingame AL.
Quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications through stable isotope labeling with dithiothreitol.
Abstract: While phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc (cytoplasmic and nuclear glycosylation) are linked to normal and pathological changes in cell states, these post-translational modifications have been difficult to analyze in proteomic studies. We describe advances in beta-elimination / Michael addition-based approaches which allow for mass spectrometry-based identification and comparative quantification of O-phosphate or O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, as well as cysteine-containing peptides for expression analysis. The method (BEMAD) involves differential isotopic labeling through Michael addition with normal dithiothreitol (DTT) (d0) or deuterated DTT (d6), and enrichment of these peptides by thiol chromatography. BEMAD was comparable to isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT; a commercially available differential isotopic quantification technique) in protein expression analysis, but also provided the identity and relative amounts of both O-phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification sites. Specificity of O-phosphate vs. O-GlcNAc mapping is achieved through coupling enzymatic dephosphorylation or O-GlcNAc hydrolysis with differential isotopic labeling. Blocking of cysteine labeling by prior oxidation of a cytosolic lysate from mouse brain allowed specific targeting of serine / threonine post-translational modifications as demonstrated through identification of 21 phosphorylation sites (5 previously reported) in a single mass spectrometry analysis. These results demonstate BEMAD is suitable for large-scale quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications.
Wells L, Vosseller K, Cole RN, Cronshaw JM, Matunis MJ, Hart GW.
Mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification using affinity tags for serine and threonine post-translational modifications.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2002
Abstract: Identifying sites of post-translational modifications on proteins is a major challenge in proteomics. O-Linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic nucleocytoplasmic modification more analogous to phosphorylation than to classical complex O-glycosylation. We describe a mass spectrometry-based method for the identification of sites modified by O-GlcNAc that relies on mild beta-elimination followed by Michael addition with dithiothreitol (BEMAD). Using synthetic peptides, we also show that biotin pentylamine can replace dithiothreitol as the nucleophile. The modified peptides can be efficiently enriched by affinity chromatography, and the sites can be mapped using tandem mass spectrometry. This same methodology can be applied to mapping sites of serine and threonine phosphorylation, and we provide a strategy that uses modification-specific antibodies and enzymes to discriminate between the two post-translational modifications. The BEMAD methodology was validated by mapping three previously identified O-GlcNAc sites, as well as three novel sites, on Synapsin I purified from rat brain. BEMAD was then used on a purified nuclear pore complex preparation to map novel sites of O-GlcNAc modification on the Lamin B receptor and the nucleoporin Nup155. This method is amenable for performing quantitative mass spectrometry and can also be adapted to quantify cysteine residues. In addition, our studies emphasize the importance of distinguishing between O-phosphate versus O-GlcNAc when mapping sites of serine and threonine post-translational modification using beta-elimination/Michael addition methods.
Vosseller K, Wells L, Lane MD, Hart GW.
Elevated nucleocytoplasmic glycosylation by O-GlcNAc results in insulin resistance associated with defects in Akt activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2002
Abstract: Increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HSP) is believed to mediate hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance in diabetes. The end product of the HSP, UDP beta-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is a donor sugar nucleotide for complex glycosylation in the secretory pathway and for O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) addition to nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Cycling of the O-GlcNAc posttranslational modification was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme that catalyzes O-GlcNAc removal from proteins, with O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc). PUGNAc treatment increased levels of O-GlcNAc and caused insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin resistance induced through the HSP by glucosamine and chronic insulin treatment correlated with increased O-GlcNAc levels on nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Whereas insulin receptor autophosphorylation and insulin receptor substrate 2 tyrosine phosphorylation were not affected by PUGNAc inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, downstream phosphorylation of Akt at Thr-308 and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta at Ser-9 was inhibited. PUGNAc-induced insulin resistance was associated with increased O-GlcNAc modification of several proteins including insulin receptor substrate 1 and beta-catenin, two important effectors of insulin signaling. These results suggest that elevation of O-GlcNAc levels attenuate insulin signaling and contribute to the mechanism by which increased flux through the HSP leads to insulin resistance in adipocytes.