Selvan N, George S, Serajee FJ, Shaw M, Hobson L, Kalscheuer V, Prasad N, Levy SE, Taylor J, Aftimos S, Schwartz CE, Huq AM, Gecz J, Wells L.
O-GlcNAc transferase missense mutations linked to X-linked intellectual disability deregulate genes involved in cell fate determination and signaling.
The Journal of biological chemistry2018
Abstract: It is estimated that ∼1% of the world's population has intellectual disability, with males affected more often than females. OGT is an X-linked gene encoding for the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which carries out the reversible addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to Ser/Thr residues of its intracellular substrates. Three missense mutations in the tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats of OGT have recently been reported to cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here, we report the discovery of two additional novel missense mutations (c.775 G>A, p.A259T, and c.1016 A>G, p.E339G) in the TPR domain of OGT that segregate with XLID in affected families. Characterization of all five of these XLID missense variants of OGT demonstrates modest declines in thermodynamic stability and/or activities of the variants. We engineered each of the mutations into a male human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9. Investigation of the global O-GlcNAc profile as well as OGT and O-GlcNAc hydrolase levels by Western blotting showed no gross changes in steady-state levels in the engineered lines. However, analyses of the differential transcriptomes of the OGT variant-expressing stem cells revealed shared deregulation of genes involved in cell fate determination and liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor signaling, which has been implicated in neuronal development. Thus, here we reveal two additional mutations encoding residues in the TPR regions of OGT that appear causal for XLID and provide evidence that the relatively stable and active TPR variants may share a common, unelucidated mechanism of altering gene expression profiles in human embryonic stem cells.
Constable S, Lim JM, Vaidyanathan K, Wells L.
O-GlcNAc transferase regulates transcriptional activity of human Oct4.
Abstract: O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a single sugar modification found on many different classes of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Addition of this modification, by the enzyme O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), is dynamic and inducible. One major class of proteins modified by O-GlcNAc is transcription factors. O-GlcNAc regulates transcription factor properties through a variety of different mechanisms including localization, stability and transcriptional activation. Maintenance of embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency requires tight regulation of several key transcription factors, many of which are modified by O-GlcNAc. Octamer-binding protein 4 (Oct4) is one of the key transcription factors required for pluripotency of ES cells and more recently, the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The action of Oct4 is modulated by the addition of several post-translational modifications, including O-GlcNAc. Previous studies in mice found a single site of O-GlcNAc addition responsible for transcriptional regulation. This study was designed to determine if this mechanism is conserved in humans. We mapped 10 novel sites of O-GlcNAc attachment on human Oct4, and confirmed a role for OGT in transcriptional activation of Oct4 at a site distinct from that found in mouse that allows distinction between different Oct4 target promoters. Additionally, we uncovered a potential new role for OGT that does not include its catalytic function. These results confirm that human Oct4 activity is being regulated by OGT by a mechanism that is distinct from mouse Oct4.
Zhao P, Schulz TC, Sherrer ES, Weatherly DB, Robins AJ, Wells L.
The human embryonic stem cell proteome revealed by multidimensional fractionation followed by tandem mass spectrometry.
Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have received considerable attention due to their therapeutic potential and usefulness in understanding early development and cell fate commitment. In order to appreciate the unique properties of these pluripotent, self-renewing cells, we have performed an in-depth multidimensional fractionation followed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the hESCs harvested from defined media to elucidate expressed, phosphorylated, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modified, and secreted proteins. From the triplicate analysis, we were able to assign more than 3000 proteins with less than 1% false-discovery rate. This analysis also allowed us to identify nearly 500 phosphorylation sites and 68 sites of O-GlcNAc modification with the same high confidence. Investigation of the phosphorylation sites allowed us to deduce the set of kinases that are likely active in these cells. We also identified more than 100 secreted proteins of hESCs that likely play a role in extracellular matrix formation and remodeling, as well as autocrine signaling for self-renewal and maintenance of the undifferentiated state. Finally, by performing in-depth analysis in triplicate, spectral counts were obtained for these proteins and posttranslationally modified peptides, which will allow us to perform relative quantitative analysis between these cells and any derived cell type in the future.
Wollaston-Hayden EE, Harris RB, Liu B, Bridger R, Xu Y, Wells L.
Global O-GlcNAc Levels Modulate Transcription of the Adipocyte Secretome during Chronic Insulin Resistance.
Frontiers in endocrinology2014
Abstract: Increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and the corresponding increase in intracellular glycosylation of proteins via O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is sufficient to induce insulin resistance (IR) in multiple systems. Previously, our group used shotgun proteomics to identify multiple rodent adipocytokines and secreted proteins whose levels are modulated upon the induction of IR by indirectly and directly modulating O-GlcNAc levels. We have validated the relative levels of several of these factors using immunoblotting. Since adipocytokines levels are regulated primarily at the level of transcription and O-GlcNAc alters the function of many transcription factors, we hypothesized that elevated O-GlcNAc levels on key transcription factors are modulating secreted protein expression. Here, we show that upon the elevation of O-GlcNAc levels and the induction of IR in mature 3T3-F442a adipocytes, the transcript levels of multiple secreted proteins reflect the modulation observed at the protein level. We validate the transcript levels in male mouse models of diabetes. Using inguinal fat pads from the severely IR db/db mouse model and the mildly IR diet-induced mouse model, we have confirmed that the secreted proteins regulated by O-GlcNAc modulation in cell culture are likewise modulated in the whole animal upon a shift to IR. By comparing the promoters of similarly regulated genes, we determine that Sp1 is a common cis-acting element. Furthermore, we show that the LPL and SPARC promoters are enriched for Sp1 and O-GlcNAc modified proteins during insulin resistance in adipocytes. Thus, the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins bound to promoters, including Sp1, is linked to adipocytokine transcription during insulin resistance.
Teo CF, Wells L.
Monitoring protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine status via metabolic labeling and copper-free click chemistry.
Abstract: O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification found on the serine and threonine residues of intracellular proteins is an inducible post-translational modification that regulates numerous biological processes. In combination with other cell biological and biochemical approaches, a robust and streamlined strategy for detecting the number and stoichiometry of O-GlcNAc modification can provide valuable insights for decoding the functions of O-GlcNAc at the molecular level. Here, we report an optimized workflow for evaluating the O-GlcNAc status of proteins using a combination of metabolic labeling and click chemistry-based mass tagging. This method is strategically complementary to the chemoenzymatic-based mass-tagging method.
Kang J, Shen Z, Lim JM, Handa H, Wells L, Tantin D.
Regulation of Oct1/Pou2f1 transcription activity by O-GlcNAcylation.
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology2013
Abstract: The Oct1 transcription factor is a potent regulator of stress responses, metabolism, and tumorigenicity. Although Oct1 is regulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitination, the presence and importance of other modifications is unknown. Here we show that Oct1 is modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties. We map two sites of O-GlcNAcylation at positions T255 and S728 within human Oct1. Under anchorage-independent overgrowth conditions, Oct1 associates 3-fold more strongly with the Gadd45a promoter and mediates transcriptional repression. Increased binding correlates with quantitative reductions in Oct1 nuclear periphery-associated puncta, and a reduced association with lamin B1. The O-GlcNAc modification sites are important for both Gadd45a repression and anchorage-independent survival. In contrast to chronic overgrowth conditions, following acute nutrient starvation Oct1 mediates Gadd45a activation. The O-GlcNAc sites are also important for Gadd45a activation under these conditions. We also, for the first time, identify specific Oct1 ubiquitination sites. The findings suggest that Oct1 integrates metabolic and stress signals via O-GlcNAc modification to regulate target gene activity.
Fong JJ, Nguyen BL, Bridger R, Medrano EE, Wells L, Pan S, Sifers RN.
β-N-Acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a novel regulator of mitosis-specific phosphorylations on histone H3.
The Journal of biological chemistry2012
Abstract: O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine, or O-GlcNAc, is a dynamic post-translational modification that cycles on and off serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. The O-GlcNAc modification shares a complex relationship with phosphorylation, as both modifications are capable of mutually inhibiting the occupation of each other on the same or nearby amino acid residue. In addition to diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, O-GlcNAc appears to play a significant role in cell growth and cell cycle progression, although the precise mechanisms are still not well understood. A recent study also found that all four core nucleosomal histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) are modified with O-GlcNAc, although no specific sites on H3 were reported. Here, we describe that histone H3, a protein highly phosphorylated during mitosis, is modified with O-GlcNAc. Several biochemical assays were used to validate that H3 is modified with O-GlcNAc. Mass spectrometry analysis identified threonine 32 as a novel O-GlcNAc site. O-GlcNAc was detected at higher levels on H3 during interphase than mitosis, which inversely correlated with phosphorylation. Furthermore, increased O-GlcNAcylation was observed to reduce mitosis-specific phosphorylation at serine 10, serine 28, and threonine 32. Finally, inhibiting OGA, the enzyme responsible for removing O-GlcNAc, hindered the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle, displaying a phenotype similar to preventing mitosis-specific phosphorylation on H3. Taken together, these data indicate that O-GlcNAcylation regulates mitosis-specific phosphorylations on H3, providing a mechanistic switch that orchestrates the G2-M transition of the cell cycle.
Zhao P, Viner R, Teo CF, Boons GJ, Horn D, Wells L.
Combining high-energy C-trap dissociation and electron transfer dissociation for protein O-GlcNAc modification site assignment.
Journal of proteome research2011
Abstract: Mass spectrometry-based studies of proteins that are post-translationally modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are challenged in effectively identifying the sites of modification while simultaneously sequencing the peptides. Here we tested the hypothesis that a combination of high-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) could specifically target the O-GlcNAc modified peptides and elucidate the amino acid sequence while preserving the attached GlcNAc residue for accurate site assignment. By taking advantage of the recently characterized O-GlcNAc-specific IgG monoclonal antibodies and the combination of HCD and ETD fragmentation techniques, O-GlcNAc modified proteins were enriched from HEK293T cells and subsequently characterized using the LTQ Orbitrap Velos ETD (Thermo Fisher Scientific) mass spectrometer. In our data set, 83 sites of O-GlcNAc modification are reported with high confidence confirming that the HCD/ETD combined approach is amenable to the detection and site assignment of O-GlcNAc modified peptides. Realizing HCD triggered ETD fragmentation on a linear ion trap/Orbitrap platform for more in-depth analysis and application of this technique to other post-translationally modified proteins are currently underway. Furthermore, this report illustrates that the O-GlcNAc transferase appears to demonstrate promiscuity with regards to the hydroxyl-containing amino acid modified in short stretches of primary sequence of the glycosylated polypeptides.
Wells L, Slawson C, Hart GW.
The E2F-1 associated retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product is modified by O-GlcNAc.
Abstract: The retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product (pRB) is a classical tumor suppressor. pRB regulates a number of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. One of the essential mechanisms by which pRB, and the related p107 and p130 family members, act is through its interactions with the E2F class of transcription factors. E2F-1 transcription is necessary for entry into S-phase during the cell-cycle. pRB binds E2F-1 and represses transcription via recruitment of a histone deacetylase complex and by preventing co-activator complexes from binding E2F-1. Current dogma suggests that phosphorylation of pRB during mid- to late-G1 leads to release of E2F-1 and E2F-1 dependent transcriptional activation of essential S-phase genes. Here we show that pRB, and the related p107 protein, are modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in an in vitro transcription/translation system. Furthermore, we show in vivo that pRB is more heavily glycosylated in G1 of the cell-cycle when pRB is known to be in an active, hypophosphorylated state. Finally, we demonstrate that E2F-1 associated pRB is modified by O-GlcNAc. These studies suggest that regulation of pRB function(s) may be controlled by dynamic O-GlcNAc modification, as well as phosphorylation.
Akimoto Y, Miura Y, Toda T, Wolfert MA, Wells L, Boons GJ, Hart GW, Endo T, Kawakami H.
Morphological changes in diabetic kidney are associated with increased O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins including α-actinin 4.
Abstract: The objective of the present study is to identify proteins that change in the extent of the modification with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) in the kidney from diabetic model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and to discuss the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and the pathological condition in diabetes.
Teo CF, Ingale S, Wolfert MA, Elsayed GA, Nöt LG, Chatham JC, Wells L, Boons GJ.
Glycopeptide-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest new roles for O-GlcNAc.
Nature chemical biology2010
Abstract: Studies of post-translational modification by beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) are hampered by a lack of efficient tools such as O-GlcNAc-specific antibodies that can be used for detection, isolation and site localization. We have obtained a large panel of O-GlcNAc-specific IgG monoclonal antibodies having a broad spectrum of binding partners by combining three-component immunogen methodology with hybridoma technology. Immunoprecipitation followed by large-scale shotgun proteomics led to the identification of more than 200 mammalian O-GlcNAc-modified proteins, including a large number of new glycoproteins. A substantial number of the glycoproteins were enriched by only one of the antibodies. This observation, combined with the results of inhibition ELISAs, suggests that the antibodies, in addition to their O-GlcNAc dependence, also appear to have different but overlapping local peptide determinants. The monoclonal antibodies made it possible to delineate differentially modified proteins of liver in response to trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation in a rat model.
Webster DM, Teo CF, Sun Y, Wloga D, Gay S, Klonowski KD, Wells L, Dougan ST.
O-GlcNAc modifications regulate cell survival and epiboly during zebrafish development.
BMC developmental biology2009
Abstract: The post-translational addition of the monosaccharide O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates the activity of a wide variety of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. The enzymes O-GlcNAc Transferase (Ogt) and O-GlcNAcase (Oga) catalyze, respectively, the attachment and removal of O-GlcNAc to target proteins. In adult mice, Ogt and Oga attenuate the response to insulin by modifying several components of the signal transduction pathway. Complete loss of ogt function, however, is lethal to mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that the enzyme has additional, unstudied roles in development. We have utilized zebrafish as a model to determine role of O-GlcNAc modifications in development. Zebrafish has two ogt genes, encoding six different enzymatic isoforms that are expressed maternally and zygotically.
Akimoto Y, Hart GW, Wells L, Vosseller K, Yamamoto K, Munetomo E, Ohara-Imaizumi M, Nishiwaki C, Nagamatsu S, Hirano H, Kawakami H.
Elevation of the post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine leads to deterioration of the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreas of diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.
Abstract: Many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are O-glycosylated on serine or threonine residues with the monosaccharide beta-N-acetylglucosamine, which is then termed O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). It has been shown that abnormal O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) of proteins is one of the causes of insulin resistance and diabetic complications. In this study, in order to examine the relationship between O-GlcNAcylation of proteins and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in noninsulin-dependent type (type 2) diabetes, we investigated the level of O-GlcNAcylation of proteins, especially that of PDX-1, and the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, which are an animal model of type-2 diabetes. By immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase protein and O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in whole pancreas and islets of Langerhans of 15-week-old diabetic GK rats and nondiabetic Wistar rats was examined. The expression of O-GlcNAc transferase at the protein level and O-GlcNAc transferase activity were increased significantly in the diabetic pancreas and islets. The diabetic pancreas and islets also showed an increase in total cellular O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAcylation of PDX-1 was also increased. In the diabetic GK rats, significant increases in the immunoreactivities of both O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase were observed. PUGNAc, an inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, induced an elevation of O-GlcNAc level and a decrease of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated islets. These results indicate that elevation of the O-GlcNAcylation of proteins leads to deterioration of insulin secretion in the pancreas of diabetic GK rats, further providing evidence for the role of O-GlcNAc in the insulin secretion.
Vosseller K, Hansen KC, Chalkley RJ, Trinidad JC, Wells L, Hart GW, Burlingame AL.
Quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications through stable isotope labeling with dithiothreitol.
Abstract: While phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc (cytoplasmic and nuclear glycosylation) are linked to normal and pathological changes in cell states, these post-translational modifications have been difficult to analyze in proteomic studies. We describe advances in beta-elimination / Michael addition-based approaches which allow for mass spectrometry-based identification and comparative quantification of O-phosphate or O-GlcNAc-modified peptides, as well as cysteine-containing peptides for expression analysis. The method (BEMAD) involves differential isotopic labeling through Michael addition with normal dithiothreitol (DTT) (d0) or deuterated DTT (d6), and enrichment of these peptides by thiol chromatography. BEMAD was comparable to isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT; a commercially available differential isotopic quantification technique) in protein expression analysis, but also provided the identity and relative amounts of both O-phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification sites. Specificity of O-phosphate vs. O-GlcNAc mapping is achieved through coupling enzymatic dephosphorylation or O-GlcNAc hydrolysis with differential isotopic labeling. Blocking of cysteine labeling by prior oxidation of a cytosolic lysate from mouse brain allowed specific targeting of serine / threonine post-translational modifications as demonstrated through identification of 21 phosphorylation sites (5 previously reported) in a single mass spectrometry analysis. These results demonstate BEMAD is suitable for large-scale quantitative analysis of both protein expression and serine / threonine post-translational modifications.
Wells L, Vosseller K, Cole RN, Cronshaw JM, Matunis MJ, Hart GW.
Mapping sites of O-GlcNAc modification using affinity tags for serine and threonine post-translational modifications.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2002
Abstract: Identifying sites of post-translational modifications on proteins is a major challenge in proteomics. O-Linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic nucleocytoplasmic modification more analogous to phosphorylation than to classical complex O-glycosylation. We describe a mass spectrometry-based method for the identification of sites modified by O-GlcNAc that relies on mild beta-elimination followed by Michael addition with dithiothreitol (BEMAD). Using synthetic peptides, we also show that biotin pentylamine can replace dithiothreitol as the nucleophile. The modified peptides can be efficiently enriched by affinity chromatography, and the sites can be mapped using tandem mass spectrometry. This same methodology can be applied to mapping sites of serine and threonine phosphorylation, and we provide a strategy that uses modification-specific antibodies and enzymes to discriminate between the two post-translational modifications. The BEMAD methodology was validated by mapping three previously identified O-GlcNAc sites, as well as three novel sites, on Synapsin I purified from rat brain. BEMAD was then used on a purified nuclear pore complex preparation to map novel sites of O-GlcNAc modification on the Lamin B receptor and the nucleoporin Nup155. This method is amenable for performing quantitative mass spectrometry and can also be adapted to quantify cysteine residues. In addition, our studies emphasize the importance of distinguishing between O-phosphate versus O-GlcNAc when mapping sites of serine and threonine post-translational modification using beta-elimination/Michael addition methods.
Vosseller K, Wells L, Lane MD, Hart GW.
Elevated nucleocytoplasmic glycosylation by O-GlcNAc results in insulin resistance associated with defects in Akt activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2002
Abstract: Increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HSP) is believed to mediate hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance in diabetes. The end product of the HSP, UDP beta-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is a donor sugar nucleotide for complex glycosylation in the secretory pathway and for O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) addition to nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Cycling of the O-GlcNAc posttranslational modification was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme that catalyzes O-GlcNAc removal from proteins, with O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosylidene)amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc). PUGNAc treatment increased levels of O-GlcNAc and caused insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin resistance induced through the HSP by glucosamine and chronic insulin treatment correlated with increased O-GlcNAc levels on nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Whereas insulin receptor autophosphorylation and insulin receptor substrate 2 tyrosine phosphorylation were not affected by PUGNAc inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, downstream phosphorylation of Akt at Thr-308 and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta at Ser-9 was inhibited. PUGNAc-induced insulin resistance was associated with increased O-GlcNAc modification of several proteins including insulin receptor substrate 1 and beta-catenin, two important effectors of insulin signaling. These results suggest that elevation of O-GlcNAc levels attenuate insulin signaling and contribute to the mechanism by which increased flux through the HSP leads to insulin resistance in adipocytes.