Li C, He A, Guo Y, Yang X, Luo M, Cheng Z, Huang L, Xia Y, Luo S.
Hypertonic stress modulates eNOS function through O-GlcNAc modification at Thr-866.
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation, an energy-sensitive posttranslational modification, can regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Previous studies found that Thr866 is the key site for low-glucose-mediated regulation of eNOS O-GlcNAc. However, it is not known whether this activity functions through the Thr866 site concomitant with other physical and chemical factors. Therefore, we first explored the effects of physical and chemical factors on eNOS O-GlcNAc and its Thr866 site. In this study, hypertonic stress, hyperthermia and hydrogen peroxide all increased the expression levels of eNOS O-GlcNAc, whereas hypoxia and high levels of alcohol had no effect. on the expression levels of eNOS O-GlcNAc; by contrast, low pH led to a decrease in eNOS O-GlcNAc levels. Notably, eNOS O-GlcNAc protein levels were unchanged after Thr866 site mutation only under hypertonic conditions, suggesting that hypertonic stress may act through the Thr866 site. Upon exploring the mechanism of hypertonic stress on eNOS O-GlcNAc activity and function, we found that hypertonic stress can upregulate the expression of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), which is dependent on AMPK. When AMPK was knocked out, the upregulation of OGT expression and increased O-GlcNAc modifications induced by hypertonic stress were reversed.
Li R, Ong Q, Wong CC, Chu ES, Sung JJ, Yang X, Yu J.
O-GlcNAcylation inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation.
Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology202134547820
Abstract: Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a critical post-translational modification regulating gene expression and fundamental cell functions. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) emerged as a key regulator of liver pathophysiology and disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of OGT in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and its consequent role in liver fibrosis. OGT protein expression and protein O-GlcNAcylation were significantly decreased in CCl4 - or MCD diet-induced liver fibrosis as compared to normal liver in mice. OGT expression and protein O-GlcNAcylation were also decreased in primary HSCs isolated from liver with CCl4 -induced fibrosis compared to those from normal liver. RNA-seq showed that OGT knockdown in HSCs modulated key signaling pathways involved in HSC activation. Promoter sequence analysis of the differentially expressed genes predicted serum response factor (SRF) as a key transcription factor regulated by OGT. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that OGT repressed activity of SRF to induce α-SMA transcription. Mutations of specific O-GlcNAcylation sites on SRF increased its transcriptional activity, validating negative regulation of SRF by OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation. Our results suggest that OGT functions as a negative regulator of HSC activation by promoting SRF O-GlcNAcylation to protect against liver fibrosis.
Zhao M, Ren K, Xiong X, Cheng M, Zhang Z, Huang Z, Han X, Yang X, Alejandro EU, Ruan HB.
Protein O-GlcNAc Modification Links Dietary and Gut Microbial Cues to the Differentiation of Enteroendocrine L Cells.
Abstract: Intestinal L cells regulate a wide range of metabolic processes, and L-cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. However, it is incompletely understood how luminal signals are integrated to control the development of L cells. Here we show that food availability and gut microbiota-produced short-chain fatty acids control the posttranslational modification on intracellular proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in intestinal epithelial cells. Via FOXO1 O-GlcNAcylation, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) suppresses expression of the lineage-specifying transcription factor Neurogenin 3 and, thus, L cell differentiation from enteroendocrine progenitors. Intestinal epithelial ablation of OGT in mice not only causes L cell hyperplasia and increased secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) but also disrupts gut microbial compositions, which notably contributes to decreased weight gain and improved glycemic control. Our results identify intestinal epithelial O-GlcNAc signaling as a brake on L cell development and function in response to nutritional and microbial cues.
Yang Y, Fu M, Li MD, Zhang K, Zhang B, Wang S, Liu Y, Ni W, Ong Q, Mi J, Yang X.
O-GlcNAc transferase inhibits visceral fat lipolysis and promotes diet-induced obesity.
Abstract: Excessive visceral fat accumulation is a primary risk factor for metabolically unhealthy obesity and related diseases. The visceral fat is highly susceptible to the availability of external nutrients. Nutrient flux into the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to protein posttranslational modification by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is responsible for the addition of GlcNAc moieties to target proteins. Here, we report that inducible deletion of adipose OGT causes a rapid visceral fat loss by specifically promoting lipolysis in visceral fat. Mechanistically, visceral fat maintains a high level of O-GlcNAcylation during fasting. Loss of OGT decreases O-GlcNAcylation of lipid droplet-associated perilipin 1 (PLIN1), which leads to elevated PLIN1 phosphorylation and enhanced lipolysis. Moreover, adipose OGT overexpression inhibits lipolysis and promotes diet-induced obesity. These findings establish an essential role for OGT in adipose tissue homeostasis and indicate a unique potential for targeting O-GlcNAc signaling in the treatment of obesity.
Yang Y, Li X, Luan HH, Zhang B, Zhang K, Nam JH, Li Z, Fu M, Munk A, Zhang D, Wang S, Liu Y, Albuquerque JP, Ong Q, Li R, Wang Q, Robert ME, Perry RJ, Chung D, Shulman GI, Yang X.
OGT suppresses S6K1-mediated macrophage inflammation and metabolic disturbance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2020
Abstract: Enhanced inflammation is believed to contribute to overnutrition-induced metabolic disturbance. Nutrient flux has also been shown to be essential for immune cell activation. Here, we report an unexpected role of nutrient-sensing O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling in suppressing macrophage proinflammatory activation and preventing diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. Overnutrition stimulates an increase in O-GlcNAc signaling in macrophages. O-GlcNAc signaling is down-regulated during macrophage proinflammatory activation. Suppressing O-GlcNAc signaling by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) knockout enhances macrophage proinflammatory polarization, promotes adipose tissue inflammation and lipolysis, increases lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues, and exacerbates tissue-specific and whole-body insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. OGT inhibits macrophage proinflammatory activation by catalyzing ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1) O-GlcNAcylation and suppressing S6K1 phosphorylation and mTORC1 signaling. These findings thus identify macrophage O-GlcNAc signaling as a homeostatic mechanism maintaining whole-body metabolism under overnutrition.
Singh JP, Qian K, Lee JS, Zhou J, Han X, Zhang B, Ong Q, Ni W, Jiang M, Ruan HB, Li MD, Zhang K, Ding Z, Lee P, Singh K, Wu J, Herzog RI, Kaech S, Wendel HG, Yates JR 3rd, Han W, Sherwin RS, Nie Y, Yang X.
O-GlcNAcase targets pyruvate kinase M2 to regulate tumor growth.
Abstract: Cancer cells are known to adopt aerobic glycolysis in order to fuel tumor growth, but the molecular basis of this metabolic shift remains largely undefined. O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is an enzyme harboring O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) hydrolase and cryptic lysine acetyltransferase activities. Here, we report that OGA is upregulated in a wide range of human cancers and drives aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth by inhibiting pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). PKM2 is dynamically O-GlcNAcylated in response to changes in glucose availability. Under high glucose conditions, PKM2 is a target of OGA-associated acetyltransferase activity, which facilitates O-GlcNAcylation of PKM2 by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAcylation inhibits PKM2 catalytic activity and thereby promotes aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. These studies define a causative role for OGA in tumor progression and reveal PKM2 O-GlcNAcylation as a metabolic rheostat that mediates exquisite control of aerobic glycolysis.
Zhu WZ, El-Nachef D, Yang X, Ledee D, Olson AK.
O-GlcNAc Transferase Promotes Compensated Cardiac Function and Protein Kinase A O-GlcNAcylation During Early and Established Pathological Hypertrophy From Pressure Overload.
Journal of the American Heart Association2019
Abstract: Background Protein posttranslational modifications by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) increase with cardiac hypertrophy, yet the functional effects of these changes are incompletely understood. In other organs, O-GlcNAc promotes adaptation to acute physiological stressors; however, prolonged O-GlcNAc elevations are believed to be detrimental. We hypothesize that early O-GlcNAcylation improves cardiac function during initial response to pressure overload hypertrophy, but that sustained elevations during established pathological hypertrophy negatively impact cardiac function by adversely affecting calcium handling proteins. Methods and Results Transverse aortic constriction or sham surgeries were performed on littermate controls or cardiac-specific, inducible O-GlcNAc transferase knockout (OGTKO) mice to reduce O-GlcNAc levels. O-GlcNAc transferase deficiency was induced at different times. To evaluate the initial response to pressure overload, OGTKO was completed preoperatively and mice were followed for 2 weeks post-surgery. To assess prolonged O-GlcNAcylation during established hypertrophy, OGTKO was performed starting 18 days after surgery and mice were followed until 6 weeks post-surgery. In both groups, OGTKO with transverse aortic constriction caused significant left ventricular dysfunction. OGTKO did not affect levels of the calcium handling protein SERCA2a. OGTKO reduced phosphorylation of phospholamban and cardiac troponin I, which would negatively impact cardiac function. O-GlcNAcylation of protein kinase A catalytic subunit, a kinase for phospholamban, decreased with OGTKO. Conclusions O-GlcNAcylation promotes compensated cardiac function in both early and established pathological hypertrophy. We identified a novel O-GlcNAcylation of protein kinase A catalytic subunit, which may regulate calcium handling and cardiac function.
Li X, Gong W, Wang H, Li T, Attri KS, Lewis RE, Kalil AC, Bhinderwala F, Powers R, Yin G, Herring LE, Asara JM, Lei YL, Yang X, Rodriguez DA, Yang M, Green DR, Singh PK, Wen H.
O-GlcNAc Transferase Suppresses Inflammation and Necroptosis by Targeting Receptor-Interacting Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase 3.
Abstract: Elevated glucose metabolism in immune cells represents a hallmark feature of many inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. However, the role of individual glucose metabolic pathways during immune cell activation and inflammation remains incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized anti-inflammatory function of the O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling associated with the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Despite elevated activities of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, activation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in attenuated HBP activity and protein O-GlcNAcylation. Deletion of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), a key enzyme for protein O-GlcNAcylation, led to enhanced innate immune activation and exacerbated septic inflammation. Mechanistically, OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation of the serine-threonine kinase RIPK3 on threonine 467 (T467) prevented RIPK3-RIPK1 hetero- and RIPK3-RIPK3 homo-interaction and inhibited downstream innate immunity and necroptosis signaling. Thus, our study identifies an immuno-metabolic crosstalk essential for fine-tuning innate immune cell activation and highlights the importance of glucose metabolism in septic inflammation.
Jiang M, Xu B, Li X, Shang Y, Chu Y, Wang W, Chen D, Wu N, Hu S, Zhang S, Li M, Wu K, Yang X, Liang J, Nie Y, Fan D.
O-GlcNAcylation promotes colorectal cancer metastasis via the miR-101-O-GlcNAc/EZH2 regulatory feedback circuit.
Abstract: Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest cancers, and the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastasis is extremely low. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered essential for metastatic CRC, but the fundamental molecular basis underlying this effect remains unknown. Here, we identified that O-GlcNAcylation, a unique posttranslational modification (PTM) involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming, increased the metastatic capability of CRC. The levels of O-GlcNAcylation were increased in the metastatic CRC tissues and cell lines, which likely promoted the EMT by enhancing EZH2 protein stability and function. The CRC patients with higher levels of O-GlcNAcylation exhibited greater lymph node metastasis potential and lower overall survival. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assays revealed that both O-GlcNAcylation transferase (OGT) and EZH2 are posttranscriptionally inhibited by microRNA-101. In addition, O-GlcNAcylation and H3K27me3 modification in the miR-101 promoter region further inhibited the transcription of miR-101, resulting in the upregulation of OGT and EZH2 in metastatic CRC, thus forming a vicious cycle. In this study, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation, which is negatively regulated by microRNA-101, likely promotes CRC metastasis by enhancing EZH2 protein stability and function. Reducing O-GlcNAcylation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for metastatic CRC.
Shi H, Munk A, Nielsen TS, Daughtry MR, Larsson L, Li S, Høyer KF, Geisler HW, Sulek K, Kjøbsted R, Fisher T, Andersen MM, Shen Z, Hansen UK, England EM, Cheng Z, Højlund K, Wojtaszewski JFP, Yang X, Hulver MW, Helm RF, Treebak JT, Gerrard DE.
Skeletal muscle O-GlcNAc transferase is important for muscle energy homeostasis and whole-body insulin sensitivity.
Abstract: Given that cellular O-GlcNAcylation levels are thought to be real-time measures of cellular nutrient status and dysregulated O-GlcNAc signaling is associated with insulin resistance, we evaluated the role of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that mediates O-GlcNAcylation, in skeletal muscle.
Ruan HB, Ma Y, Torres S, Zhang B, Feriod C, Heck RM, Qian K, Fu M, Li X, Nathanson MH, Bennett AM, Nie Y, Ehrlich BE, Yang X.
Calcium-dependent O-GlcNAc signaling drives liver autophagy in adaptation to starvation.
Genes & development2017
Abstract: Starvation induces liver autophagy, which is thought to provide nutrients for use by other organs and thereby maintain whole-body homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is required for glucagon-stimulated liver autophagy and metabolic adaptation to starvation. Genetic ablation of OGT in mouse livers reduces autophagic flux and the production of glucose and ketone bodies. Upon glucagon-induced calcium signaling, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates OGT, which in turn promotes O-GlcNAc modification and activation of Ulk proteins by potentiating AMPK-dependent phosphorylation. These findings uncover a signaling cascade by which starvation promotes autophagy through OGT phosphorylation and establish the importance of O-GlcNAc signaling in coupling liver autophagy to nutrient homeostasis.
Tan RR, Li YF, Zhang SJ, Huang WS, Tsoi B, Hu D, Wan X, Yang X, Wang Q, Kurihara H, He RR.
Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 Occurring from Hyperglycemia-Induced Neural Tube Defects Is Ameliorated by Carnosine But Not Folic Acid in Chicken Embryos.
Abstract: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of the embryonic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic gestation. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis influenced by hyperglycemia was investigated using chicken embryo models. High-concentration glucose was administered into chicken eggs and resulted in increased plasma and brain tissue glucose, and suppressed expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). The rate of NTD positively correlated with hyperglycemia. Furthermore, abnormally increased O-GlcNAcylation, a nutritionally responsive modification, of the key neural tube marker Pax3 protein led to the loss of this protein. This loss was not observed in a folate-deficiency NTD induced by methotrexate. Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, showed significant recovery effects on neural tube development. In contrast, folic acid, a well-known periconceptional agent, surprisingly showed relatively minimal effect. Higher expression levels of the Pax3 protein were found in the carnosine-treated groups, while lower expression levels were found in folic acid groups. Furthermore, the abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of the Pax3 protein was restored by carnosine. These results suggest new insights into using endogenous nutrients for the protection of embryonic neurodevelopment affected by diabetes gestation. The abnormal excessive O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 may be responsible for the neural tube defects associated with hyperglycemia.
Bindesbøll C, Fan Q, Nørgaard RC, MacPherson L, Ruan HB, Wu J, Pedersen TÅ, Steffensen KR, Yang X, Matthews J, Mandrup S, Nebb HI, Grønning-Wang LM.
Liver X receptor regulates hepatic nuclear O-GlcNAc signaling and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein activity.
Journal of lipid research2015
Abstract: Liver X receptor (LXR)α and LXRβ play key roles in hepatic de novo lipogenesis through their regulation of lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP). LXRs activate lipogenic gene transcription in response to feeding, which is believed to be mediated by insulin. We have previously shown that LXRs are targets for glucose-hexosamine-derived O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification enhancing their ability to regulate SREBP-1c promoter activity in vitro. To elucidate insulin-independent effects of feeding on LXR-mediated lipogenic gene expression in vivo, we subjected control and streptozotocin-treated LXRα/β(+/+) and LXRα/β(-/-) mice to a fasting-refeeding regime. We show that under hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic conditions, LXRs maintain their ability to upregulate the expression of glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes, including glucokinase (GK), SREBP-1c, ChREBPα, and the newly identified shorter isoform ChREBPβ. Furthermore, glucose-dependent increases in LXR/retinoid X receptor-regulated luciferase activity driven by the ChREBPα promoter was mediated, at least in part, by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) signaling in Huh7 cells. Moreover, we show that LXR and OGT interact and colocalize in the nucleus and that loss of LXRs profoundly reduced nuclear O-GlcNAc signaling and ChREBPα promoter binding activity in vivo. In summary, our study provides evidence that LXRs act as nutrient and glucose metabolic sensors upstream of ChREBP by modulating GK expression, nuclear O-GlcNAc signaling, and ChREBP expression and activity.
Ruan HB, Dietrich MO, Liu ZW, Zimmer MR, Li MD, Singh JP, Zhang K, Yin R, Wu J, Horvath TL, Yang X.
O-GlcNAc transferase enables AgRP neurons to suppress browning of white fat.
Abstract: Induction of beige cells causes the browning of white fat and improves energy metabolism. However, the central mechanism that controls adipose tissue browning and its physiological relevance are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that fasting and chemical-genetic activation of orexigenic AgRP neurons in the hypothalamus suppress the browning of white fat. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins regulates fundamental cellular processes. The levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc modification are enriched in AgRP neurons and are elevated by fasting. Genetic ablation of OGT in AgRP neurons inhibits neuronal excitability through the voltage-dependent potassium channel, promotes white adipose tissue browning, and protects mice against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. These data reveal adipose tissue browning as a highly dynamic physiological process under central control, in which O-GlcNAc signaling in AgRP neurons is essential for suppressing thermogenesis to conserve energy in response to fasting.
Li MD, Ruan HB, Hughes ME, Lee JS, Singh JP, Jones SP, Nitabach MN, Yang X.
O-GlcNAc signaling entrains the circadian clock by inhibiting BMAL1/CLOCK ubiquitination.
Abstract: Circadian clocks are coupled to metabolic oscillations through nutrient-sensing pathways. Nutrient flux into the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway triggers covalent protein modification by O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Here we show that the hexosamine/O-GlcNAc pathway modulates peripheral clock oscillation. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) promotes expression of BMAL1/CLOCK target genes and affects circadian oscillation of clock genes in vitro and in vivo. Both BMAL1 and CLOCK are rhythmically O-GlcNAcylated, and this protein modification stabilizes BMAL1 and CLOCK by inhibiting their ubiquitination. In vivo analysis of genetically modified mice with perturbed hepatic OGT expression shows aberrant circadian rhythms of glucose homeostasis. These results establish the counteraction between O-GlcNAcylation and ubiquitination as a key mechanism that regulates the circadian clock and suggest a crucial role for O-GlcNAc signaling in transducing nutritional signals to the core circadian timing machinery.
Ruan HB, Han X, Li MD, Singh JP, Qian K, Azarhoush S, Zhao L, Bennett AM, Samuel VT, Wu J, Yates JR 3rd, Yang X.
O-GlcNAc transferase/host cell factor C1 complex regulates gluconeogenesis by modulating PGC-1α stability.
Abstract: A major cause of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients is inappropriate hepatic gluconeogenesis. PGC-1α is a master regulator of gluconeogenesis, and its activity is controlled by various posttranslational modifications. A small portion of glucose metabolizes through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which leads to O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Using a proteomic approach, we identified a broad variety of proteins associated with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), among which host cell factor C1 (HCF-1) is highly abundant. HCF-1 recruits OGT to O-GlcNAcylate PGC-1α, and O-GlcNAcylation facilitates the binding of the deubiquitinase BAP1, thus protecting PGC-1α from degradation and promoting gluconeogenesis. Glucose availability modulates gluconeogenesis through the regulation of PGC-1α O-GlcNAcylation and stability by the OGT/HCF-1 complex. Hepatic knockdown of OGT and HCF-1 improves glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. These findings define the OGT/HCF-1 complex as a glucose sensor and key regulator of gluconeogenesis, shedding light on new strategies for treating diabetes.
Li MD, Ruan HB, Singh JP, Zhao L, Zhao T, Azarhoush S, Wu J, Evans RM, Yang X.
O-GlcNAc transferase is involved in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transrepression.
The Journal of biological chemistry2012
Abstract: Recruitment of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) to promoters plays an important role in gene repression. Glucocorticoid signaling represses the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and AP-1 through direct binding, yet the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report that OGT is an important component of GR-mediated transrepression. OGT associates with ligand-bound GR in a multi-protein repression complex. Overexpression of OGT potentiates the GR transrepression pathway, whereas depletion of endogenous OGT by RNA interference abolishes the repression. The recruitment of OGT by GR leads to increased O-GlcNAcylation and decreased phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II on target genes. Functionally, overexpression of OGT enhances glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in resistant cell lines while knockdown of OGT prevents sensitive cell lines from apoptosis. These studies identify a molecular mechanism of GR transrepression, and highlight the function of O-GlcNAc in hormone signaling.
Guinez C, Filhoulaud G, Rayah-Benhamed F, Marmier S, Dubuquoy C, Dentin R, Moldes M, Burnol AF, Yang X, Lefebvre T, Girard J, Postic C.
O-GlcNAcylation increases ChREBP protein content and transcriptional activity in the liver.
Abstract: Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a key transcription factor that mediates the effects of glucose on glycolytic and lipogenic genes in the liver. We have previously reported that liver-specific inhibition of ChREBP prevents hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice by specifically decreasing lipogenic rates in vivo. To better understand the regulation of ChREBP activity in the liver, we investigated the implication of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc or O-GlcNAcylation), an important glucose-dependent posttranslational modification playing multiple roles in transcription, protein stabilization, nuclear localization, and signal transduction.
Yang X, Ongusaha PP, Miles PD, Havstad JC, Zhang F, So WV, Kudlow JE, Michell RH, Olefsky JM, Field SJ, Evans RM.
Phosphoinositide signalling links O-GlcNAc transferase to insulin resistance.
Abstract: Glucose flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway leads to the post-translational modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This tandem system serves as a nutrient sensor to couple systemic metabolic status to cellular regulation of signal transduction, transcription, and protein degradation. Here we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) harbours a previously unrecognized type of phosphoinositide-binding domain. After induction with insulin, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate recruits OGT from the nucleus to the plasma membrane, where the enzyme catalyses dynamic modification of the insulin signalling pathway by O-GlcNAc. This results in the alteration in phosphorylation of key signalling molecules and the attenuation of insulin signal transduction. Hepatic overexpression of OGT impairs the expression of insulin-responsive genes and causes insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. These findings identify a molecular mechanism by which nutritional cues regulate insulin signalling through O-GlcNAc, and underscore the contribution of this modification to the aetiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Zhang F, Su K, Yang X, Bowe DB, Paterson AJ, Kudlow JE.
O-GlcNAc modification is an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome.
Abstract: The ubiquitin proteasome system classically selects its substrates for degradation by tagging them with ubiquitin. Here, we describe another means of controlling proteasome function in a global manner. The 26S proteasome can be inhibited by modification with the enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). This reversible modification of the proteasome inhibits the proteolysis of the transcription factor Sp1 and a hydrophobic peptide through inhibition of the ATPase activity of 26S proteasomes. The Rpt2 ATPase in the mammalian proteasome 19S cap is modified by O-GlcNAc in vitro and in vivo and as its modification increases, proteasome function decreases. This mechanism may couple proteasomes to the general metabolic state of the cell. The O-GlcNAc modification of proteasomes may allow the organism to respond to its metabolic needs by controlling the availability of amino acids and regulatory proteins.
Yang X, Zhang F, Kudlow JE.
Recruitment of O-GlcNAc transferase to promoters by corepressor mSin3A: coupling protein O-GlcNAcylation to transcriptional repression.
Abstract: Transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides at serine or threonine residues, yet the precise functional roles of this modification are largely unknown. Here, we show that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme that catalyzes this posttranslational modification, interacts with a histone deacetylase complex by binding to the corepressor mSin3A. Functionally, OGT and mSin3A cooperatively repress transcription in parallel with histone deacetylation. We propose that mSin3A targets OGT to promoters to inactivate transcription factors and RNA polymerase II by O-GlcNAc modification, which acts in concert with histone deacetylation to promote gene silencing in an efficient and specific manner.
Yang X, Su K, Roos MD, Chang Q, Paterson AJ, Kudlow JE.
O-linkage of N-acetylglucosamine to Sp1 activation domain inhibits its transcriptional capability.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2001
Abstract: The posttranslational modification of eukaryotic intracellular proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) monosaccharides is essential for cell viability, yet its precise functional roles are largely unknown. O-GlcNAc transferase utilizes UDP-GlcNAc, the end product of hexosamine biosynthesis, to catalyze this modification. The availability of UDP-GlcNAc correlates with glycosylation levels of intracellular proteins as well as with transcriptional levels of some genes. Meanwhile, transcription factors and RNA polymerase II can be modified by O-GlcNAc. A linkage between transcription factor O-GlcNAcylation and transcriptional regulation therefore has been postulated. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation of a chimeric transcriptional activator containing the second activation domain of Sp1 decreases its transcriptional activity both in an in vitro transcription system and in living cells, which is in concert with our observation that O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 activation domain blocks its in vitro and in vivo interactions with other Sp1 molecules and TATA-binding protein-associated factor II 110. Furthermore, overexpression of O-GlcNAc transferase specifically inhibits transcriptional activation by native Sp1 in cells. Thus, our studies provide direct evidence that O-GlcNAcylation of transcription factors is involved in transcriptional regulation.