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Darabedian N, Yang B, Ding R, Cutolo G, Zaro BW, Woo CM, Pratt MR. O-Acetylated Chemical Reporters of Glycosylation Can Display Metabolism-Dependent Background Labeling of Proteins but Are Generally Reliable Tools for the Identification of Glycoproteins. Frontiers in chemistry 2020 8 32411667
Abstract:
Monosaccharide analogs bearing bioorthogonal functionalities, or metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation, have been used for approximately two decades for the visualization and identification of different glycoproteins. More recently, proteomics analyses have shown that per-O-acetylated MCRs can directly and chemically react with cysteine residues in lysates and potentially cells, drawing into question the physiological relevance of the labeling. Here, we report robust metabolism-dependent labeling by Ac42AzMan but not the structurally similar Ac44AzGal. However, the levels of background chemical-labeling of cell lysates by both reporters are low and identical. We then characterized Ac42AzMan labeling and found that the vast majority of the labeling occurs on intracellular proteins but that this MCR is not converted to previously characterized reporters of intracellular O-GlcNAc modification. Additionally, we used isotope targeted glycoproteomics (IsoTaG) proteomics to show that essentially all of the Ac42AzMan labeling is on cysteine residues. Given the implications this result has for the identification of intracellular O-GlcNAc modifications using MCRs, we then performed a meta-analysis of the potential O-GlcNAcylated proteins identified by different techniques. We found that many of the proteins identified by MCRs have also been found by other methods. Finally, we randomly selected four proteins that had only been identified as O-GlcNAcylated by MCRs and showed that half of them were indeed modified. Together, these data indicate that the selective metabolism of certain MCRs is responsible for S-glycosylation of proteins in the cytosol and nucleus. However, these results also show that MCRs are still good tools for unbiased identification of glycosylated proteins, as long as complementary methods are employed for confirmation.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
CALR, UBP10, TRADD, CYLD
Species: Homo sapiens
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Zaro BW, Batt AR, Chuh KN, Navarro MX, Pratt MR. The Small Molecule 2-Azido-2-deoxy-glucose Is a Metabolic Chemical Reporter of O-GlcNAc Modifications in Mammalian Cells, Revealing an Unexpected Promiscuity of O-GlcNAc Transferase. ACS chemical biology 2017 12(3) 28135057
Abstract:
Glycans can be directly labeled using unnatural monosaccharide analogs, termed metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs). These compounds enable the secondary visualization and identification of glycoproteins by taking advantage of bioorthogonal reactions. Most widely used MCRs have azides or alkynes at the 2-N-acetyl position but are not selective for one class of glycoprotein over others. To address this limitation, we are exploring additional MCRs that have bioorthogonal functionality at other positions. Here, we report the characterization of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucose (2AzGlc). We find that 2AzGlc selectively labels intracellular O-GlcNAc modifications, which further supports a somewhat unexpected, structural flexibility in this pathway. In contrast to the endogenous modification N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), we find that 2AzGlc is not dynamically removed from protein substrates and that treatment with higher concentrations of per-acetylated 2AzGlc is toxic to cells. Finally, we demonstrate that this toxicity is an inherent property of the small-molecule, as removal of the 6-acetyl-group renders the corresponding reporter nontoxic but still results in protein labeling.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A2A5R8, A2A6U3, A2AF81, A2AG39, A2AIW9, A2AJ72, A2AJI1, A2AKV2, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AUR3, LAS1L, TRM1L, A5A4Y9, A6PWC3, B0QZF8, B1AU76, UPP, B7ZC19, B7ZP47, B8JJC1, D3YWF6, D3YWK1, D3YWS3, D3YYP4, E9PX53, E9Q066, I2BP2, E9Q4Q2, E9Q5L7, E9Q7W0, E9QP59, F8WGW3, G3UX26, G3UYZ0, G3UZ44, G3X972, H3BKW0, H7BWX9, GTPB1, AIP, ATOX1, HDAC1, GSH0, DHX15, IKBE, AKAP2, SLK, IMPCT, IF6, ACOT1, NMT1, DHB12, SRPK1, ZN326, KLC1, RPP30, IDHC, CASP8, GCR, TYSY, RIR1, S10AA, LEG1, G3P, TPIS, PRDX3, CBX3, TISD, CATA, IMDH2, NFKB1, MAP4, CEBPB, CDK4, FKBP4, HMGB2, KAP3, MP2K1, RANG, PTN11, FBRL, PTN12, FMR1, HMGCL, DYN1, CAP1, STAT1, STAT3, PURA, ALD2, SIPA1, PURA2, GSHR, FOSL2, FOSL1, GSTM5, PCY1A, VATA, HDGF, UBP10, RHOX5, HMGA2, CCHL, NUB1, FAF1, ZNRD2, TB182, PCBP1, ARL1, PFD3, TCTP, HMGB1, DYL1, UB2L3, HDAC2, ELAV1, 4EBP2, PYRG1, TCPB, SPTC2, PSME2, BOP1, WBP2, XDH, HMMR, E2AK2, CO6A1, FABP5, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, RM10, Q3TFP0, GUAA, FUBP2, TRADD, CTU2, Q3U4W8, SNX27, BABA1, EDC4, COBL1, SKAP2, ARH40, CSTOS, LRRF1, ZMAT1, Q45VK5, JIP4, MDC1, Q5SUW3, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, SPB6, CAPR1, PAPS1, TS101, PA1B2, FNTA, IGBP1, FSCN1, FXR1, CBX5, HS105, RAI1, MELK, FOXC2, DBNL, CYTB, NDRG1, RALY, GPDM, PUR2, RAB3I, F120A, NOP58, Q6DFZ1, TPM4, Q6NXL1, Q6NZD2, TNPO3, SMHD1, UGGG1, UBXN7, TXLNA, DC1L2, KI18B, JUPI2, LARP1, CAND2, ACAP2, HNRPQ, SPAG7, ATX2L, MAP6, ELP1, PJA2, PGRC2, KCMF1, Q80VB6, FA98B, WDTC1, CPPED, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, ATG4B, Q8BGJ5, FTO, Q8BH80, PRUN1, AHSA1, RCC2, NCEH1, LSS, FBLN3, PPR18, SRRM2, MSRB3, PPME1, RL1D1, TBCD4, NHLC2, MAP1S, TLK1, CND2, RAE1L, SEP10, ZFP57, UBA6, UBA3, STON1, PPM1F, GNL3, Q8CIH9, HMCS1, Q8K0C7, PDXK, ANGE2, LRC41, SDE2, DNM1L, ANLN, MATR3, CBR3, MEPCE, ERF3A, DC1L1, SPART, TDIF2, HEXI1, SNP47, UBP15, MAVS, UBXN4, ACSF2, MICU1, CBWD1, BACH, ISOC1, IPYR2, CSDE1, PIP30, GCSH, Q91X76, DUS3L, BAG2, KCC1A, TTC1, HNRLL, RIN1, PP6R3, MARC2, DBR1, ATAD3, PSIP1, NXF1, NONO, PLST, RRAGC, VMA5A, TARA, DDAH2, TADA1, GRPE1, ABD12, NU155, OGFR, NPM3, GLOD4, COPRS, DPOE4, MIEN1, TRAP1, VATG1, CHSP1, OCAD1, RANB3, MFR1L, NDUF7, TBC15, PPIL4, MPPB, CYBP, ZCHC8, CD37L, MMS19, ARPIN, HNRPM, NXP20, SPF27, TOE1, Q9D4G5, ATAD1, CF226, IPYR, ORN, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, EIF3F, IFG15, LIMA1, NEK7, RTN3, STK3, NUP50, SYSM, HSPB8, BAG3, CUL3, RABX5, CAF1A, DREB, TOM40, DNJC7, NFU1, FBX6, NUBP1, DEST, TEBP, ACOT9, NFKB2, KAD2, SKP1, PDC6I, VAPA, CARM1, RAD9A, IF2G, SAE2, TRIP6, MBD2, HNRPF
Species: Mus musculus
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Chuh KN, Batt AR, Zaro BW, Darabedian N, Marotta NP, Brennan CK, Amirhekmat A, Pratt MR. The New Chemical Reporter 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc Reveals O-GlcNAc Modification of the Apoptotic Caspases That Can Block the Cleavage/Activation of Caspase-8. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017 139(23) 28528544
Abstract:
O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is required for survival in mammalian cells. Genetic and biochemical experiments have found that increased modification inhibits apoptosis in tissues and cell culture and that lowering O-GlcNAcylation induces cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms by which O-GlcNAcylation might inhibit apoptosis are still being elucidated. Here, we first synthesize a new metabolic chemical reporter, 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc (6AlkGlcNAc), for the identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Subsequent characterization of 6AlkGlcNAc shows that this probe is selectively incorporated into O-GlcNAcylated proteins over cell-surface glycoproteins. Using this probe, we discover that the apoptotic caspases are O-GlcNAcylated, which we confirmed using other techniques, raising the possibility that the modification affects their biochemistry. We then demonstrate that changes in the global levels of O-GlcNAcylation result in a converse change in the kinetics of caspase-8 activation during apoptosis. Finally, we show that caspase-8 is modified at residues that can block its cleavage/activation. Our results provide the first evidence that the caspases may be directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation as a potential antiapoptotic mechanism.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A2A4A6, A2A5R8, GPTC8, SPD2B, A2ACG7, A2AFQ9, A2AFW6, A2AG46, CKAP5, A2AH75, A2AJ72, MA7D1, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AMY5, TPX2, PPIG, LAS1L, A5A4Y9, A6PWC3, A6PWK7, UBP36, B1AT03, B1AT82, B1AU75, B2RQG2, OTUD4, B7ZCP4, B7ZP47, D3YUW8, D3YWF6, D3YWK1, D3YX62, SAFB1, D3YXM7, D3YZ06, D3YZP6, D3Z069, D3Z158, D3Z3F8, D3Z6W2, E0CYM1, E9PUH7, E9PVM7, E9PWG6, E9PWV3, E9PWW9, E9PY48, E9PYT3, E9PZM7, E9Q066, E9Q2X6, E9Q3G8, E9Q450, E9Q4K7, E9Q4Q2, KIF23, BD1L1, NUMA1, E9Q7M2, E9Q986, E9Q9E1, E9Q9H2, E9QKG3, E9QKG6, E9QKZ2, E9QLA5, E9QP49, E9QP59, E9QPI5, F2Z3X7, F6S5I0, F7AA26, F7BQE4, FARP1, F8VQ93, F8VQC7, F8VQE9, F8VQK5, F8WI30, G3UZ44, G3UZX6, G3X8R0, G3X8Y3, G3X928, G3X963, G3X972, G3X9V0, G5E896, G5E8E1, H3BJU7, H3BK31, H3BKK2, H7BX26, I1E4X0, I7HIK9, J3QNW0, DPYL2, GTPB1, AKAP1, TCOF, AIP, HDAC1, RL21, GSH0, KIF1C, DHX15, SC6A6, IF6, ILK, ATX2, NMT1, E41L2, DHB12, SRPK1, ZN326, ZFR, PARG, SPD2A, SP1, CASP8, HPRT, LDHA, G6PI, TYSY, RIR1, GNAI2, ITB1, 4F2, H2B1F, MAP1B, HMOX1, LEG1, G3P, KS6A3, COF1, GNAO, IFRD1, VIME, TPM3, UBL4A, CBX3, CXA1, CATA, IMDH2, IL1RA, MCM3, CDK4, NKTR, FKBP4, CBX2, HMGB2, AIMP1, KAP3, MP2K1, SYWC, KIF4, NEDD1, DPOLA, RANG, UBP4, PTN11, RAB18, PTN1, PTN12, LDLR, DNLI1, CAP1, STAT3, STA5B, PURA, ALD2, RAGP1, NEDD4, STT3A, ALDH2, GSHR, GFPT1, PCY1A, MCM4, ICAL, PLCB3, CDN2A, HDGF, UBP10, KPYM, CCHL, IDHP, DDX6, GOGA3, COX17, ACTN4, GCP3, TB182, EIF3E, ABCE1, PFD3, HNRPK, 1433E, RAP1A, RS25, TCTP, DNJA1, HMGB1, IF5A1, RS17, RS12, UB2L3, HXD13, HDAC2, ELAV1, TP53B, CASP3, PYRG1, TCPB, STIM2, SRSF3, CSRP2, SPTC2, BOP1, SMAD4, M4K4, HNRL2, MARK3, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, PEPD, CDCA2, Q3TFP0, GUAA, PDE12, Q3TL72, PRC2C, NOL9, FUBP2, TRADD, CTU2, ZN865, Q3U4W8, Q3UG37, NAT9, NOL8, Q3UJQ9, SC31A, NCBP1, LRRF1, DDX17, LRC47, JIP4, EHMT1, CA050, AAPK1, NSRP1, Q5RL57, Q5SQB0, TENS3, PUR4, Q5UE59, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, GRB10, HELLS, SPB6, RIPK1, CAPR1, ASNS, LAP2A, CDC37, TS101, SNTB2, FNTA, BAP31, PLPP1, FSCN1, FXR1, DDX5, ATRX, HS105, DDX3Y, DDX3X, TGFI1, DBNL, SH3G1, CYTB, SMAD2, NDRG1, ZYX, SQSTM, TPP2, ZN512, LAR4B, F120A, CNDG2, NOP58, LTV1, Q6NV52, Q6NXL1, Q6NZD2, ANKL2, Q6P5B5, XPO1, KIF15, FHOD1, TXLNA, PTN23, JUPI2, NUDC1, TACC1, UBE2O, LARP1, ACAP2, 2AAA, MTCH2, ZN503, CYFP1, HNRPQ, SPAG7, DEK, ACTN1, ATX2L, CKP2L, ZN516, ERBIN, SEPT9, PGRC2, Q80VB6, UBP2L, PI42B, ZN598, SAFB2, Q80ZX0, DLG1, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, Q8BGJ5, FTO, TIPRL, Q8BH80, MISSL, ERC6L, CARF, PRUN1, NUP93, FBX30, HBAP1, AHSA1, RCC2, IPO5, SYLC, CKAP4, MAP11, PALM2, CPNE3, SENP7, CSN7B, NSD2, DPP9, Q8BWW3, KANK2, PXK, PIGT, ITPK1, NHLC2, MAP1S, GWL, PKHH2, CND2, THOP1, SEP11, SKA3, CA198, SEP10, AROS, UBA6, LIPB1, SMAG1, Q8CCM0, ZN276, NAA30, SNX8, SYEP, OGT1, GNL3, PDLI5, FERM2, AGO2, HMCS1, AMERL, SCNM1, DNM1L, NEK9, ANLN, EDC3, MATR3, CHAP1, MEPCE, ERF3A, CC137, TDIF2, VPS18, RFC3, MCMBP, HEXI1, LUZP1, SNP47, TMX1, MAVS, UBXN4, Q8VCQ8, ACSF2, PARN, VIGLN, PSMD2, NAA40, F1142, CBWD1, PAXI, SFPQ, CPIN1, RAB14, IPYR2, PUS7, CSDE1, PIP30, RABE2, CISD1, Q91X76, DUS3L, KCC1A, TTC1, SRGP2, SNX18, RISC, HNRLL, Q921K2, PP6R3, LRC59, UBXN1, DBR1, KCC2G, Q924B0, WAC, SMC6, PAWR, SIAS, STML2, PSIP1, NXF1, PDXD1, NONO, PLST, RRAGC, VMA5A, MAOM, DCTN2, ZN281, CT2NL, GRPE1, ABD12, RTN4, NU155, OGFR, NPM3, NOP16, GLOD4, Q9CQ43, MTAP, IFM3, CYB5B, PAF15, PSMD9, WIPI3, SKA2, VATG1, CHSP1, LRC40, RANB3, SMC1A, MFR1L, ARHGP, DDX47, TBC15, PPIL4, MPPB, CYBP, TECR, PAIRB, ZCHC8, SPCS2, Q9CZP3, CD37L, SSBP3, MMS19, MGRN1, ARPIN, HNRPM, SYRC, MCES, Q9D4G5, ATAD1, F162A, TRIR, IPYR, PHF10, ARFG3, ORN, BOLA1, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, XRN2, GNAI3, PUR6, RAI14, SENP3, ARFG1, SIL1, VPS35, DGCR8, SYCC, ELP4, LIMA1, XPO2, RBP2, RTN3, PALLD, TMOD3, STK3, COPB, NUP50, DDX21, SH3L1, DDX20, MBNL1, BAG3, GKAP1, ZN207, TRXR1, PPCE, CAF1A, LIMD1, NDRG3, DNJC7, NFU1, COPG1, NUBP1, SMAP, DEST, ACOT9, PR40A, FOXO1, FIZ1, NFKB2, KAD2, AKA12, PRKRA, PDC6I, CHIP, COR1C, VAPA, NDKM, E41L3, TAGL2, CARM1, MTNB, BCL10, IF2G, P5CS, COG1, MD2L1, EIF3G, SAE2, ILF3, TRIP6, USO1, BAZ1B, HNRPF, KEAP1
Species: Mus musculus
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Gurel Z, Zaro BW, Pratt MR, Sheibani N. Identification of O-GlcNAc modification targets in mouse retinal pericytes: implication of p53 in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. PloS one 2014 9(5) 24788674
Abstract:
Hyperglycemia is the primary cause of the majority of diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemic conditions have a detrimental effect on many tissues and cell types, especially the retinal vascular cells including early loss of pericytes (PC). However, the mechanisms behind this selective sensitivity of retinal PC to hyperglycemia are undefined. The O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is elevated under hyperglycemic condition, and thus, may present an important molecular modification impacting the hyperglycemia-driven complications of diabetes. We have recently demonstrated that the level of O-GlcNAc modification in response to high glucose is variable in various retinal vascular cells. Retinal PC responded with the highest increase in O-GlcNAc modification compared to retinal endothelial cells and astrocytes. Here we show that these differences translated into functional changes, with an increase in apoptosis of retinal PC, not just under high glucose but also under treatment with O-GlcNAc modification inducers, PUGNAc and Thiamet-G. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved, we have used click-It chemistry and LC-MS analysis and identified 431 target proteins of O-GlcNAc modification in retinal PC using an alkynyl-modified GlcNAc analog (GlcNAlk). Among the O-GlcNAc target proteins identified here 115 of them were not previously reported to be target of O-GlcNAc modification. We have identified at least 34 of these proteins with important roles in various aspects of cell death processes. Our results indicated that increased O-GlcNAc modification of p53 was associated with an increase in its protein levels in retinal PC. Together our results suggest that post-translational O-GlcNAc modification of p53 and its increased levels may contribute to selective early loss of PC during diabetes. Thus, modulation of O-GlcNAc modification may provide a novel treatment strategy to prevent the initiation and progression of DR.
Species: Mus musculus
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Chuh KN, Zaro BW, Piller F, Piller V, Pratt MR. Changes in metabolic chemical reporter structure yield a selective probe of O-GlcNAc modification. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2014 136(35) 25153642
Abstract:
Metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain bioorthogonal functionalities and enable the direct visualization and identification of glycoproteins from living cells. Each MCR was initially thought to report on specific types of glycosylation. We and others have demonstrated that several MCRs are metabolically transformed and enter multiple glycosylation pathways. Therefore, the development of selective MCRs remains a key unmet goal. We demonstrate here that 6-azido-6-deoxy-N-acetyl-glucosamine (6AzGlcNAc) is a specific MCR for O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Biochemical analysis and comparative proteomics with 6AzGlcNAc, N-azidoacetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAz), and N-azidoacetyl-galactosamine (GalNAz) revealed that 6AzGlcNAc exclusively labels intracellular proteins, while GlcNAz and GalNAz are incorporated into a combination of intracellular and extracellular/lumenal glycoproteins. Notably, 6AzGlcNAc cannot be biosynthetically transformed into the corresponding UDP sugar-donor by the canonical salvage-pathway that requires phosphorylation at the 6-hydroxyl. In vitro experiments showed that 6AzGlcNAc can bypass this roadblock through direct phosphorylation of its 1-hydroxyl by the enzyme phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (AGM1). Taken together, 6AzGlcNAc enables the specific analysis of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and these results suggest that specific MCRs for other types of glycosylation can be developed. Additionally, our data demonstrate that cells are equipped with a somewhat unappreciated metabolic flexibility with important implications for the biosynthesis of natural and unnatural carbohydrates.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A1BN54, A2A4Z1, A2A6U3, A2AFJ1, A2AG83, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AMY5, LAS1L, B1AU75, OTUD4, B7FAU9, B7ZP47, D3YUC9, D3YVJ7, SAFB1, D3Z4W3, E9PVC5, E9PZM7, E9Q066, E9Q2X6, E9Q310, E9Q5L7, E9Q7M2, E9Q986, F6T2Z7, G3UZ44, G3UZI2, G3X8Q0, G3X8Y3, G3X928, G3X972, G3X9V0, G5E8E1, H3BKK2, J3JS94, CAN2, DPYL2, AIP, HDAC1, MP2K3, GSH0, DHX15, ZW10, AKAP2, SLK, NMT1, E41L2, SRPK1, PARG, SPD2A, LDHA, ANXA2, RIR1, ANXA1, LMNB1, LEG1, G3P, TPIS, COF1, FAS, CBX3, BCAT1, MCM3, MAP4, FKBP4, HMGB2, AIMP1, MP2K1, SYWC, RANG, UBP4, PTN11, RAB5C, DNLI1, CAP1, STAT3, EPS15, PURA, MSH2, ALD2, PURA2, NEDD4, GFPT1, PCY1A, ICAL, HDGF, UBP10, ACTN4, EF2, TB182, SF3B6, PCBP1, PSME3, PFD3, HNRPK, MTPN, DNJA1, SUMO1, IF5A1, UB2L3, 1433T, HDAC2, ELAV1, 4EBP2, PYRG1, TCPB, BOP1, DAB2, XDH, UBA1, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, PSA, Q3TFP0, GUAA, METK2, FA98A, Q3TT92, UAP1L, NOL9, FUBP2, Q3U4W8, YRDC, NOL8, COBL1, CSTOS, LRRF1, Q3V3Y9, DDX17, MDC1, TENS3, Q5UE59, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, SPB6, CAPR1, PAPS1, ASNS, LAP2B, LAP2A, PPM1G, CDC37, FXR1, HS105, PCBP2, KPCI, DDX3X, TSN, DBNL, CYTB, ZYX, RALY, SQSTM, TPP2, PUR2, PEAK1, NOP58, TPM4, LTV1, ZC11A, Q6P5B5, SMHD1, GGA2, TXLNA, JUPI2, UBE2O, LARP1, 2AAA, MTCH2, DEK, MBB1A, ATX2L, OTUB1, MAP6, AFTIN, FLNB, PI42B, ZN598, SAFB2, GRWD1, CPPED, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, Q8BGJ5, SYAC, RUFY1, PRUN1, CTF18, AHSA1, RCC2, IPO5, CKAP4, PPR18, HEAT3, SRRM2, HAT1, MAP1S, TLK1, CND2, THOP1, SEP11, TBL3, SEP10, UBA6, SYEP, GNL3, PDLI5, HMCS1, PKHO2, NEK9, ANLN, MATR3, CBR3, MEPCE, ERF3A, SPART, TDIF2, MCMBP, UBP15, MAVS, Q8VCQ8, PSMD2, FLNC, CPIN1, ACLY, MK67I, RINI, PUS7, CSDE1, DUS3L, KCC1A, TTC1, TADBP, RIN1, NONO, RRAGC, SERB, UBQL4, OGFR, NPM3, GLOD4, MTAP, CYB5B, PSMD9, CHSP1, OCAD1, RANB3, MFR1L, TBC15, CYBP, ZCHC8, GARS, CD37L, UB2V1, HNRPM, Q9D4G5, NOP56, IPYR, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, XRN2, MYPT1, PUR6, WDR4, SENP3, LIMA1, ANM1, NUP50, DDX20, IQGA1, MBNL1, ELOV1, DCLK1, BAG3, PPCE, CAF1A, LIMD1, DREB, TOM40, DEST, FOXO1, NFKB2, PDC6I, COR1C, TAGL2, CARM1, MTNB, GBP2, P5CS, EIF3G, SAE2, USO1, HNRPF, KEAP1
Species: Mus musculus
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Zaro BW, Yang YY, Hang HC, Pratt MR. Chemical reporters for fluorescent detection and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins reveal glycosylation of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011 108(20) 21540332
Abstract:
The dynamic modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the monosaccharide N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) continues to emerge as an important regulator of many biological processes. Herein we describe the development of an alkynyl-modified GlcNAc analog (GlcNAlk) as a new chemical reporter of O-GlcNAc modification in living cells. This strategy is based on metabolic incorporation of reactive functionality into the GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway. When combined with the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition, this chemical reporter allowed for the robust in-gel fluorescent visualization of O-GlcNAc and affinity enrichment and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Using in-gel fluorescence detection, we characterized the metabolic fates of GlcNAlk and the previously reported azido analog, GlcNAz. We confirmed previous results that GlcNAz can be metabolically interconverted to GalNAz, whereas GlcNAlk does not, thereby yielding a more specific metabolic reporter of O-GlcNAc modification. We also used GlcNAlk, in combination with a biotin affinity tag, to identify 374 proteins, 279 of which were not previously reported, and we subsequently confirmed the enrichment of three previously uncharacterized proteins. Finally we confirmed the O-GlcNAc modification of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1, the first reported glycosylation of this protein.
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