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Omelková M, Fenger CD, Murray M, Hammer TB, Pravata VM, Bartual SG, Czajewski I, Bayat A, Ferenbach AT, Stavridis MP, van Aalten DMF. An O-GlcNAc transferase pathogenic variant linked to intellectual disability affects pluripotent stem cell self-renewal. Disease models & mechanisms 2023 16(6) 37334838
Abstract:
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is an essential enzyme that modifies proteins with O-GlcNAc. Inborn OGT genetic variants were recently shown to mediate a novel type of congenital disorder of glycosylation (OGT-CDG), which is characterised by X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) and developmental delay. Here, we report an OGTC921Y variant that co-segregates with XLID and epileptic seizures, and results in loss of catalytic activity. Colonies formed by mouse embryonic stem cells carrying OGTC921Y showed decreased levels of protein O-GlcNAcylation accompanied by decreased levels of Oct4 (encoded by Pou5f1), Sox2 and extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), implying reduced self-renewal capacity. These data establish a link between OGT-CDG and embryonic stem cell self-renewal, providing a foundation for examining the developmental aetiology of this syndrome.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
HCFC1, TAB1
Species: Homo sapiens
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Mitchell CW, Galan Bartual S, Ferenbach AT, Scavenius C, van Aalten DMF. Exploiting O-GlcNAc transferase promiscuity to dissect site-specific O-GlcNAcylation. Glycobiology 2023 37856504
Abstract:
Protein O-GlcNAcylation is an evolutionary conserved post-translational modification catalysed by the nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and reversed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA). How site-specific O-GlcNAcylation modulates a diverse range of cellular processes is largely unknown. A limiting factor in studying this is the lack of accessible techniques capable of producing homogeneously O-GlcNAcylated proteins, in high yield, for in vitro studies. Here, we exploit the tolerance of OGT for cysteine instead of serine, combined with a co-expressed OGA to achieve site-specific, highly homogeneous mono-glycosylation. Applying this to DDX3X, TAB1, and CK2α, we demonstrate that near-homogeneous mono-S-GlcNAcylation of these proteins promotes DDX3X and CK2α solubility and enables production of mono-S-GlcNAcylated TAB1 crystals, albeit with limited diffraction. Taken together, this work provides a new approach for functional dissection of protein O-GlcNAcylation.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
TAB1
Species: Homo sapiens
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Soria LR, Makris G, D'Alessio AM, De Angelis A, Boffa I, Pravata VM, Rüfenacht V, Attanasio S, Nusco E, Arena P, Ferenbach AT, Paris D, Cuomo P, Motta A, Nitzahn M, Lipshutz GS, Martínez-Pizarro A, Richard E, Desviat LR, Häberle J, van Aalten DMF, Brunetti-Pierri N. O-GlcNAcylation enhances CPS1 catalytic efficiency for ammonia and promotes ureagenesis. Nature communications 2022 13(1) 36064721
Abstract:
Life-threatening hyperammonemia occurs in both inherited and acquired liver diseases affecting ureagenesis, the main pathway for detoxification of neurotoxic ammonia in mammals. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and nutrient-sensitive post-translational modification using as substrate UDP-GlcNAc, the end-product of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. Here we show that increased liver UDP-GlcNAc during hyperammonemia increases protein O-GlcNAcylation and enhances ureagenesis. Mechanistically, O-GlcNAcylation on specific threonine residues increased the catalytic efficiency for ammonia of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), the rate-limiting enzyme in ureagenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme removing O-GlcNAc from proteins, resulted in clinically relevant reductions of systemic ammonia in both genetic (hypomorphic mouse model of propionic acidemia) and acquired (thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure) mouse models of liver diseases. In conclusion, by fine-tuned control of ammonia entry into ureagenesis, hepatic O-GlcNAcylation of CPS1 increases ammonia detoxification and is a novel target for therapy of hyperammonemia in both genetic and acquired diseases.