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Jackson EG, Cutolo G, Yang B, Yarravarapu N, Burns MWN, Bineva-Todd G, Roustan C, Thoden JB, Lin-Jones HM, van Kuppevelt TH, Holden HM, Schumann B, Kohler JJ, Woo CM, Pratt MR. 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-GalNAz (4FGalNAz) Is a Metabolic Chemical Reporter of O-GlcNAc Modifications, Highlighting the Notable Substrate Flexibility of O-GlcNAc Transferase. ACS chemical biology 2022 17(1) 34931806
Bio-orthogonal chemistries have revolutionized many fields. For example, metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain a bio-orthogonal functionality, such as azides or alkynes. MCRs are metabolically incorporated into glycoproteins by living systems, and bio-orthogonal reactions can be subsequently employed to install visualization and enrichment tags. Unfortunately, most MCRs are not selective for one class of glycosylation (e.g., N-linked vs O-linked), complicating the types of information that can be gleaned. We and others have successfully created MCRs that are selective for intracellular O-GlcNAc modification by altering the structure of the MCR and thus biasing it to certain metabolic pathways and/or O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Here, we attempt to do the same for the core GalNAc residue of mucin O-linked glycosylation. The most widely applied MCR for mucin O-linked glycosylation, GalNAz, can be enzymatically epimerized at the 4-hydroxyl to give GlcNAz. This results in a mixture of cell-surface and O-GlcNAc labeling. We reasoned that replacing the 4-hydroxyl of GalNAz with a fluorine would lock the stereochemistry of this position in place, causing the MCR to be more selective. After synthesis, we found that 4FGalNAz labels a variety of proteins in mammalian cells and does not perturb endogenous glycosylation pathways unlike 4FGalNAc. However, through subsequent proteomic and biochemical characterization, we found that 4FGalNAz does not widely label cell-surface glycoproteins but instead is primarily a substrate for OGT. Although these results are somewhat unexpected, they once again highlight the large substrate flexibility of OGT, with interesting and important implications for intracellular protein modification by a potential range of abiotic and native monosaccharides.
Species: Homo sapiens
Woo CM, Lund PJ, Huang AC, Davis MM, Bertozzi CR, Pitteri SJ. Mapping and Quantification of Over 2000 O-linked Glycopeptides in Activated Human T Cells with Isotope-Targeted Glycoproteomics (Isotag). Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2018 17(4) 29351928
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on proteins often function to regulate signaling cascades, with the activation of T cells during an adaptive immune response being a classic example. Mounting evidence indicates that the modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), the only mammalian glycan found on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, helps regulate T cell activation. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of how O-GlcNAc functions in T cell activation remains elusive, partly because of the difficulties in mapping and quantifying O-GlcNAc sites. Thus, to advance insight into the role of O-GlcNAc in T cell activation, we performed glycosite mapping studies via direct glycopeptide measurement on resting and activated primary human T cells with a technique termed Isotope Targeted Glycoproteomics. This approach led to the identification of 2219 intact O-linked glycopeptides across 1045 glycoproteins. A significant proportion (>45%) of the identified O-GlcNAc sites lie near or coincide with a known phosphorylation site, supporting the potential for PTM crosstalk. Consistent with other studies, we find that O-GlcNAc sites in T cells lack a strict consensus sequence. To validate our results, we employed gel shift assays based on conjugating mass tags to O-GlcNAc groups. Notably, we observed that the transcription factors c-JUN and JUNB show higher levels of O-GlcNAc glycosylation and higher levels of expression in activated T cells. Overall, our findings provide a quantitative characterization of O-GlcNAc glycoproteins and their corresponding modification sites in primary human T cells, which will facilitate mechanistic studies into the function of O-GlcNAc in T cell activation.