Jia C, Li H, Fu D, Lan Y.
GFAT1/HBP/O-GlcNAcylation Axis Regulates β-Catenin Activity to Promote Pancreatic Cancer Aggressiveness.
BioMed research international2020
Abstract: Reprogrammed glucose and glutamine metabolism are essential for tumor initiation and development. As a branch of glucose and metabolism, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) generates uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and contributes to the O-GlcNAcylation process. However, the spectrum of HBP-dependent tumors and the mechanisms by which the HBP promotes tumor aggressiveness remain areas of active investigation. In this study, we analyzed the activity of the HBP and its prognostic value across 33 types of human cancers. Increased HBP activity was observed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and higher HBP activity predicted a poor prognosis in PDAC patients. Genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1), inhibited PDAC cell proliferation, invasive capacity, and triggered cell apoptosis. Notably, these effects can be restored by addition of UDP-GlcNAc. Moreover, similar antitumor effects were noticed by pharmacological inhibition of GFAT1 with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) or Azaserine. PDAC is maintained by oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional activity. Our data showed that GFAT1 can regulate β-catenin expression via modulation of the O-GlcNAcylation process. TOP/FOP-Flash and real-time qPCR analysis showed that GFAT1 knockdown inhibited β-catenin activity and the transcription of its downstream target genes CCND1 and MYC. Ectopic expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin restored the suppressive roles of GFAT1 knockdown on PDAC cell proliferation and invasion. Collectively, our findings indicate that higher GFAT1/HBP/O-GlcNAcylation exhibits tumor-promoting roles by maintaining β-catenin activity in PDAC.
Kasprowicz A, Spriet C, Terryn C, Rigolot V, Hardiville S, Alteen MG, Lefebvre T, Biot C.
Exploring the Potential of β-Catenin O-GlcNAcylation by Using Fluorescence-Based Engineering and Imaging.
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)2020
Abstract: Monitoring glycosylation changes within cells upon response to stimuli remains challenging because of the complexity of this large family of post-translational modifications (PTMs). We developed an original tool, enabling labeling and visualization of the cell cycle key-regulator β-catenin in its O-GlcNAcylated form, based on intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology in cells. We opted for a bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy based on the dual-labeling of β-catenin with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) for protein sequence combined with a chemically-clicked imaging probe for PTM, resulting in a fast and easy to monitor qualitative FRET assay. We validated this technology by imaging the O-GlcNAcylation status of β-catenin in HeLa cells. The changes in O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin were varied by perturbing global cellular O-GlcNAc levels with the inhibitors of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Finally, we provided a flowchart demonstrating how this technology is transposable to any kind of glycosylation.
Lee BE, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Jeong H, Kim BG, Lee HE, Lee J, Kim HB, Lee SE, Yang YR, Yi EC, Hanover JA, Myung K, Suh PG, Kwon T, Kim JI.
O-GlcNAcylation regulates dopamine neuron function, survival and degeneration in Parkinson disease.
Brain : a journal of neurology2020
Abstract: The dopamine system in the midbrain is essential for volitional movement, action selection, and reward-related learning. Despite its versatile roles, it contains only a small set of neurons in the brainstem. These dopamine neurons are especially susceptible to Parkinson's disease and prematurely degenerate in the course of disease progression, while the discovery of new therapeutic interventions has been disappointingly unsuccessful. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation, an essential post-translational modification in various types of cells, is critical for the physiological function and survival of dopamine neurons. Bidirectional modulation of O-GlcNAcylation importantly regulates dopamine neurons at the molecular, synaptic, cellular, and behavioural levels. Remarkably, genetic and pharmacological upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation mitigates neurodegeneration, synaptic impairments, and motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. These findings provide insights into the functional importance of O-GlcNAcylation in the dopamine system, which may be utilized to protect dopamine neurons against Parkinson's disease pathology.
Gao S, Miao Y, Liu Y, Liu X, Fan X, Lin Y, Qian P, Zhou J, Dai Y, Xia L, Zhu P, Zhu J.
Reciprocal Regulation Between O-GlcNAcylation and β-Catenin Facilitates Cell Viability and Inhibits Apoptosis in Liver Cancer.
DNA and cell biology2019
Abstract: Abnormal expression of O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) and β-catenin is a general feature of cancer and contributes to transformed phenotypes. In this study, we identified the interaction between O-GlcNAc and β-catenin, and explored their effects on the progression of liver cancer. Our results demonstrated that upregulation of O-GlcNAc was induced by high glucose, whereas the application of PuGNAc and GlcNAc increased β-catenin protein expression levels, as well as the protein's stability and nuclear accumulation in the liver cancer cell lines HEP-G2 and HuH-7. In addition, overexpression of β-catenin could increase O-GlcNAc expression levels through upregulation of uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1 (UAP1) protein expression, protein stability, and inhibition of its ubiquitination. Moreover, the O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin promoted the proliferation, colony formation, and repressed the induction of apoptosis in HEP-G2 and HuH-7 cells. Knockdown of β-catenin reduced cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumorigenesis, and promoted cell apoptosis through the downregulation of UAP1 expression. In conclusion, this study revealed that the reciprocal regulation between O-GlcNAcylation and β-catenin facilitated the proliferation of liver cancer.
Lenin R, Nagy PG, Jha KA, Gangaraju R.
GRP78 translocation to the cell surface and O-GlcNAcylation of VE-Cadherin contribute to ER stress-mediated endothelial permeability.
Abstract: Increased O-GlcNAcylation, a well-known post-translational modification of proteins causally linked to various detrimental cellular functions in pathological conditions including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Previously we have shown that endothelial activation induced by inflammation and hyperglycemia results in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated intercellular junction alterations accompanied by visual deficits in a tie2-TNF-α transgenic mouse model. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased ER stress via O-GlcNAcylation of VE-Cadherin likely contribute to endothelial permeability. We show that ER stress leads to GRP78 translocation to the plasma membrane, increased O-GlcNAcylation of proteins, particularly VE-Cadherin resulting in a defective complex partnering leading to the loss of retinal endothelial barrier integrity and increased transendothelial migration of monocytes. We further show an association of GRP78 with the VE-Cadherin under these conditions. Interestingly, cells exposed to ER stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid partially mitigated all these effects. Our findings suggest an essential role for ER stress and O-GlcNAcylation in altering the endothelial barrier function and reveal a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of DR.
Harosh-Davidovich SB, Khalaila I.
O-GlcNAcylation affects β-catenin and E-cadherin expression, cell motility and tumorigenicity of colorectal cancer.
Experimental cell research2018
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation, the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety to Ser/Thr residues, is a sensor of the cell metabolic state. Cancer diseases such as colon, lung and breast cancer, possess deregulated O-GlcNAcylation. Studies during the last decade revealed that O-GlcNAcylation is implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and proliferation. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cadherin-mediated adhesion are also implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key cellular process in invasion and cancer metastasis. Often, deregulation of the Wnt pathway is caused by altered phosphorylation of its components. Specifically, phosphorylation of Ser or Thr residues of β-catenin affects its location and interaction with E-cadherin, thus facilitating cell-cell adhesion. Consistent with previous studies, the current study indicates that β-catenin is O-GlcNAcylated. To test the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on cell motility and how O-GlcNAcylation might affect β-catenin and E-cadherin functions, the enzyme machinery of O-GlcNAcylation was modulated either with chemical inhibitors or by gene silencing. When O-GlcNAcase (OGA) was inhibited, a global elevation of protein O-GlcNAcylation and increase in the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin were noted. Concomitantly with enhanced O-GlcNAcylation, β-catenin transcriptional activity were elevated. Additionally, fibroblast cell motility was enhanced. Stable silenced cell lines with adenoviral OGA or adenoviral O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) were established. Consistent with the results obtained by OGA chemical inhibition by TMG, OGT-silencing led to a significant reduction in β-catenin level. In vivo, murine orthotropic colorectal cancer model indicates that elevated O-GlcNAcylation leads to increased mortality rate, tumor and metastasis development. However, reduction in O-GlcNAcylation promoted survival that could be attributed to attenuated tumor and metastasis development. The results described herein provide circumstantial clues that O-GlcNAcylation deregulates β-catenin and E-cadherin expression and activity in fibroblast cell lines and this might influence EMT and cell motility, which may further influence tumor development and metastasis.
Berthier A, Vinod M, Porez G, Steenackers A, Alexandre J, Yamakawa N, Gheeraert C, Ploton M, Maréchal X, Dubois-Chevalier J, Hovasse A, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Cianférani S, Rolando C, Bray F, Duez H, Eeckhoute J, Lefebvre T, Staels B, Lefebvre P.
Combinatorial regulation of hepatic cytoplasmic signaling and nuclear transcriptional events by the OGT/REV-ERBα complex.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2018
Abstract: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα integrates the circadian clock with hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by nucleating transcriptional comodulators at genomic regulatory regions. An interactomic approach identified O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) as a REV-ERBα-interacting protein. By shielding cytoplasmic OGT from proteasomal degradation and favoring OGT activity in the nucleus, REV-ERBα cyclically increased O-GlcNAcylation of multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins as a function of its rhythmically regulated expression, while REV-ERBα ligands mostly affected cytoplasmic OGT activity. We illustrate this finding by showing that REV-ERBα controls OGT-dependent activities of the cytoplasmic protein kinase AKT, an essential relay in insulin signaling, and of ten-of-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes in the nucleus. AKT phosphorylation was inversely correlated to REV-ERBα expression. REV-ERBα enhanced TET activity and DNA hydroxymethylated cytosine (5hmC) levels in the vicinity of REV-ERBα genomic binding sites. As an example, we show that the REV-ERBα/OGT complex modulates SREBP-1c gene expression throughout the fasting/feeding periods by first repressing AKT phosphorylation and by epigenomically priming the Srebf1 promoter for a further rapid response to insulin. Conclusion: REV-ERBα regulates cytoplasmic and nuclear OGT-controlled processes that integrate at the hepatic SREBF1 locus to control basal and insulin-induced expression of the temporally and nutritionally regulated lipogenic SREBP-1c transcript.
Chen Y, Jin L, Xue B, Jin D, Sun F, Wen C.
NRAGE induces β-catenin/Arm O-GlcNAcylation and negatively regulates Wnt signaling.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications2017
Abstract: The Wnt pathway is crucial for animal development, as well as tumor formation. Understanding the regulation of Wnt signaling will help to elucidate the mechanism of the cell cycle, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. It is generally accepted that in response to Wnt signals, β-catenin accumulates in the cytoplasm and is imported into the nucleus where it recruits LEF/TCF transcription factors to activate the expression of target genes. In this study, we report that human NRAGE, a neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) binding protein, markedly suppresses the expression of genes activated by the Wnt pathway. Consistent with this finding, loss of function of NRAGE by RNA interference (RNAi) activates the Wnt pathway. Moreover, NRAGE suppresses the induction of axis duplication by microinjected β-catenin in Xenopus embryos. To our surprise, NRAGE induces nuclear localization of β-catenin and increases its DNA binding ability. Further studies reveal that NRAGE leads to the modification of β-catenin/Arm with O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), and failure of the association between β-catenin/Arm and pygopus(pygo) protein, which is required for transcriptional activation of Wnt target genes. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for regulating Wnt signaling.
Wang S, Yang F, Petyuk VA, Shukla AK, Monroe ME, Gritsenko MA, Rodland KD, Smith RD, Qian WJ, Gong CX, Liu T.
Quantitative proteomics identifies altered O-GlcNAcylation of structural, synaptic and memory-associated proteins in Alzheimer's disease.
The Journal of pathology2017
Zhou F, Huo J, Liu Y, Liu H, Liu G, Chen Y, Chen B.
Elevated glucose levels impair the WNT/β-catenin pathway via the activation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in endometrial cancer.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology2016
Abstract: Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in the world. Associations between fasting glucose levels (greater than 5.6mmol/L) and the risk of cancer fatality have been reported. However, the underlying link between glucose metabolic disease and EC remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the influence of elevated glucose levels on the WNT/β-catenin pathway in EC. Previous studies have suggested that elevated concentrations of glucose can drive the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) flux, thereby enhancing the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins. Here, we cultured EC cell lines, AN3CA and HEC-1-B, with various concentrations of glucose. Results showed that when treated with high levels of glucose, both lines showed increased expression of β-catenin and O-GlcNAcylation levels; however, these effects could be abolished by the HBP inhibitors, Azaserine and 6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine, and be restored by glucosamine. Moreover the AN3CA and HEC-1-B cells that were cultured with or without PUGNAc, an inhibitor of the O-GlcNAcase, showed that PUGNAc increased β-catenin levels. The results suggest that elevated glucose levels increase β-catenin expression via the activation of the HBP in EC cells. Subcellular fractionation experiments showed that AN3CA cells had a higher expression of intranuclear β-catenin in high glucose medium. Furthermore, TOP/FOP-Flash and RT-PCR results showed that glucose-induced increased expression of β-catenin triggered the transcription of target genes. In conclusion, elevated glucose levels, via HBP, increase the O-GlcNAcylation level, thereby inducing the over expression of β-catenin and subsequent transcription of the target genes in EC cells.
Lin W, Gao L, Chen X.
Protein-Specific Imaging of O-GlcNAcylation in Single Cells.
Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology2015
Abstract: Thousands of intracellular proteins are post-translationally modified with O-GlcNAc, and O-GlcNAcylation impacts the function of modified proteins and mediates diverse biological processes. However, the ubiquity of this important glycosylation makes it highly challenging to probe the O-GlcNAcylation state of a specific protein at the cellular level. Herein, we report the development of a FLIM-FRET-based strategy, which exploits the spatial proximity of the O-GlcNAc moiety and the attaching protein, for protein-specific imaging of O-GlcNAcylation in single cells. We demonstrated this strategy by imaging the O-GlcNAcylation state of tau and β-catenin inside the cells. Furthermore, the changes in tau O-GlcNAcylation were monitored when the overall cellular O-GlcNAc was pharmacologically altered by using the OGT and OGA inhibitors. We envision that the FLIM-FRET strategy will be broadly applicable to probe the O-GlcNAcylation state of various proteins in the cells.
Ha JR, Hao L, Venkateswaran G, Huang YH, Garcia E, Persad S.
β-catenin is O-GlcNAc glycosylated at Serine 23: implications for β-catenin's subcellular localization and transactivator function.
Experimental cell research2014
Abstract: We have previously reported that β-catenin is post-translationally modified with a single O-linked attachment of β-N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc). We showed that O-GlcNAc regulated β-catenin's subcellular localization and transcriptional activity.
Olivier-Van Stichelen S, Dehennaut V, Buzy A, Zachayus JL, Guinez C, Mir AM, El Yazidi-Belkoura I, Copin MC, Boureme D, Loyaux D, Ferrara P, Lefebvre T.
O-GlcNAcylation stabilizes β-catenin through direct competition with phosphorylation at threonine 41.
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology2014
Abstract: Dysfunctions in Wnt signaling increase β-catenin stability and are associated with cancers, including colorectal cancer. In addition, β-catenin degradation is decreased by nutrient-dependent O-GlcNAcylation. Human colon tumors and colons from mice fed high-carbohydrate diets exhibited higher amounts of β-catenin and O-GlcNAc relative to healthy tissues and mice fed a standard diet, respectively. Administration of the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor thiamet G to mice also increased colonic expression of β-catenin. By ETD-MS/MS, we identified 4 O-GlcNAcylation sites at the N terminus of β-catenin (S23/T40/T41/T112). Furthermore, mutation of serine and threonine residues within the D box of β-catenin reduced O-GlcNAcylation by 75%. Interestingly, elevating O-GlcNAcylation in human colon cell lines drastically reduced phosphorylation at T41, a key residue of the D box responsible for β-catenin stability. Analyses of β-catenin O-GlcNAcylation mutants reinforced T41 as the most crucial residue that controls the β-catenin degradation rate. Finally, inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation decreased the β-catenin/α-catenin interaction necessary for mucosa integrity, whereas O-GlcNAcase silencing improved this interaction. These results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation regulates not only the stability of β-catenin, but also affects its localization at the level of adherens junctions. Accordingly, we propose that O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin is a missing link between the glucose metabolism deregulation observed in metabolic disorders and the development of cancer.
Jin FZ, Yu C, Zhao DZ, Wu MJ, Yang Z.
A correlation between altered O-GlcNAcylation, migration and with changes in E-cadherin levels in ovarian cancer cells.
Experimental cell research2013
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In recent years, the roles of O-GlcNAcylation in several human malignant tumors have been investigated, and O-GlcNAcylation was found to be linked to cellular features relevant to metastasis. In this study, we modeled four diverse ovarian cancer cells and investigated the effects of O-GlcNAcylation on ovarian cancer cell migration. We found that total O-GlcNAcylation level was elevated in HO-8910PM cells compared to OVCAR3 cells. Additionally, through altering the total O-GlcNAcylation level by OGT silencing or OGA inhibition, we found that the migration of OVCAR3 cells was dramatically enhanced by PUGNAc and Thiamet G treatment, and the migration ability of HO-8910PM cells was significantly inhibited by OGT silencing. Furthermore, we also found that the expression of E-cadherin, an O-GlcNAcylated protein in ovarian cancer cells, was reduced by OGA inhibition in OVCAR3 cells and elevated by OGT silencing in HO-8910PM cells. These results indicate that O-GlcNAcylation could enhance ovarian cancer cell migration and decrease the expression of E-cadherin. Our studies also suggest that O-GlcNAcylation might become another potential target for the therapy of ovarian cancer.
Trinidad JC, Barkan DT, Gulledge BF, Thalhammer A, Sali A, Schoepfer R, Burlingame AL.
Global identification and characterization of both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation at the murine synapse.
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP2012
Abstract: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic, reversible monosaccharide modifier of serine and threonine residues on intracellular protein domains. Crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation has been hypothesized. Here, we identified over 1750 and 16,500 sites of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation from murine synaptosomes, respectively. In total, 135 (7%) of all O-GlcNAcylation sites were also found to be sites of phosphorylation. Although many proteins were extensively phosphorylated and minimally O-GlcNAcylated, proteins found to be extensively O-GlcNAcylated were almost always phosphorylated to a similar or greater extent, indicating the O-GlcNAcylation system is specifically targeting a subset of the proteome that is also phosphorylated. Both PTMs usually occur on disordered regions of protein structure, within which, the location of O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation is virtually random with respect to each other, suggesting that negative crosstalk at the structural level is not a common phenomenon. As a class, protein kinases are found to be more extensively O-GlcNAcylated than proteins in general, indicating the potential for crosstalk of phosphorylation with O-GlcNAcylation via regulation of enzymatic activity.