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Jackson EG, Cutolo G, Yang B, Yarravarapu N, Burns MWN, Bineva-Todd G, Roustan C, Thoden JB, Lin-Jones HM, van Kuppevelt TH, Holden HM, Schumann B, Kohler JJ, Woo CM, Pratt MR. 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-GalNAz (4FGalNAz) Is a Metabolic Chemical Reporter of O-GlcNAc Modifications, Highlighting the Notable Substrate Flexibility of O-GlcNAc Transferase. ACS chemical biology 2022 17(1) 34931806
Abstract:
Bio-orthogonal chemistries have revolutionized many fields. For example, metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain a bio-orthogonal functionality, such as azides or alkynes. MCRs are metabolically incorporated into glycoproteins by living systems, and bio-orthogonal reactions can be subsequently employed to install visualization and enrichment tags. Unfortunately, most MCRs are not selective for one class of glycosylation (e.g., N-linked vs O-linked), complicating the types of information that can be gleaned. We and others have successfully created MCRs that are selective for intracellular O-GlcNAc modification by altering the structure of the MCR and thus biasing it to certain metabolic pathways and/or O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Here, we attempt to do the same for the core GalNAc residue of mucin O-linked glycosylation. The most widely applied MCR for mucin O-linked glycosylation, GalNAz, can be enzymatically epimerized at the 4-hydroxyl to give GlcNAz. This results in a mixture of cell-surface and O-GlcNAc labeling. We reasoned that replacing the 4-hydroxyl of GalNAz with a fluorine would lock the stereochemistry of this position in place, causing the MCR to be more selective. After synthesis, we found that 4FGalNAz labels a variety of proteins in mammalian cells and does not perturb endogenous glycosylation pathways unlike 4FGalNAc. However, through subsequent proteomic and biochemical characterization, we found that 4FGalNAz does not widely label cell-surface glycoproteins but instead is primarily a substrate for OGT. Although these results are somewhat unexpected, they once again highlight the large substrate flexibility of OGT, with interesting and important implications for intracellular protein modification by a potential range of abiotic and native monosaccharides.
Species: Homo sapiens
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He J, Fan Z, Tian Y, Yang W, Zhou Y, Zhu Q, Zhang W, Qin W, Yi W. Spatiotemporal Activation of Protein O-GlcNAcylation in Living Cells. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2022 144(10) 35138101
Abstract:
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a prevalent protein modification that plays fundamental roles in both cell physiology and pathology. O-GlcNAc is catalyzed solely by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). The study of protein O-GlcNAc function is limited by the lack of tools to control OGT activity with spatiotemporal resolution in cells. Here, we report light control of OGT activity in cells by replacing a catalytically essential lysine residue with a genetically encoded photocaged lysine. This enables the expression of a transiently inactivated form of OGT, which can be rapidly reactivated by photo-decaging. We demonstrate the activation of OGT activity by monitoring the time-dependent increase of cellular O-GlcNAc and profile glycoproteins using mass-spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. We further apply this activation strategy to control the morphological contraction of fibroblasts. Furthermore, we achieved spatial activation of OGT activity predominantly in the cytosol. Thus, our approach provides a valuable chemical tool to control cellular O-GlcNAc with much needed spatiotemporal precision, which aids in a better understanding of O-GlcNAc function.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
SBNO1, CNOT1, BACH, PSD11, PSD12, TAF4, CLIC1, EIF3F, IPO5, IF2B3, ARI1A, KMT2D, ANM5, PSA7, HAT1, HGS, MYPT1, XPO1, SC16A, SR140, SET1A, PUR4, NPC1, OGT1, HMGB3, PPM1G, EIF3D, EIF3H, P4HA2, SERA, PSMD3, PAPS1, MSI1H, IF4G3, E41L2, FOXO3, ZN207, BUB3, ACTN4, SYNC, SAHH2, KPRB, GANP, PEPL, OGA, PLOD3, IMA7, IF2P, DNJA2, MITF, CPNE3, CLU, PP6R2, CREST, ANR17, NCOR1, VP26A, CLN5, CSDE1, IDHC, SRP72, MTA2, TOX4, SC24D, PCF11, NFAT5, SC31A, AGFG2, SCAF4, SMC2, IPO7, PSMG1, SC24A, SC24B, EYA4, HS74L, TOM40, LDHA, PNPH, HPRT, PGK1, CAH2, ALDOA, ANXA1, G3P, IF2A, RLA1, RLA2, RLA0, JUN, LA, AGAL, KCRM, ENOA, PYGL, G6PI, LDHB, H10, ANXA2, TBB5, PROF1, APT, SYEP, HS90A, LAMB1, SP1, ANXA6, DAF, PFKAM, HS90B, ASNS, RS17, ANXA5, RSSA, GSTP1, HMGB1, PARP1, LKHA4, ALDOC, ATX1L, HS71B, RO60, PTPRF, THIO, HSP7C, EPB41, UMPS, G6PD, C1TC, ADHX, SRF, PRPS2, PABP1, PCNA, IMDH2, KCRB, PEPD, XRCC6, XRCC5, RINI, EF2, P4HA1, PLST, ACPH, GYS1, KPYM, PO2F1, SYDC, PLAK, ERF3A, NDKA, RS2, CBR1, CREB1, HSP76, PYRG1, DDX5, PFKAL, TCPA, RL35A, ARF4, RL7, RL17, PGAM1, DNLI1, NUCL, SPEE, CSK22, PSB1, FLNA, PIMT, PUR2, PUR6, UBA1, NDKB, RFX1, CBL, RS3, NFYA, SAHH, COF1, EF1B, MCM3, RS12, BRD2, PSA1, PSA2, PSA3, PSA4, MOES, DDX6, DNMT1, PAX6, U2AF2, RL13, SYTC, SYVC, EF1G, 1433T, ARNT, RL10, RFA1, APEX1, PYR1, MAP4, PSB6, PSB5, AMPL, TKT, RBMS1, EF1D, PRDX6, RL12, PEBP1, 2AAA, CDC27, NMT1, PURA2, PUR8, METK2, DNJA1, PUR9, 1433B, STIP1, PRDX2, ELF1, CGL, RL9, KINH, MCM4, MCM5, MCM7, HSP74, RL22, CBS, MYH9, MYH10, COPB2, FUS, DEK, PRS7, RL4, SRP14, TALDO, RS19, RL3, TCPZ, RL13A, MDHC, IF2G, CSK, GARS, SYIC, RS27, RANG, BAG6, NSF, RL27A, RL5, RL21, RL28, RS9, RS10, SYQ, RL29, ATPO, PPCE, COPD, TCPE, PIPNB, AL9A1, NASP, FAS, TCPG, SYAC, SYSC, PSB3, MCM2, YLPM1, RBM25, HINT1, GSK3A, GUAA, DNLI3, GDIB, SERPH, F10A1, RL14, TCPQ, TCPD, ANX11, PAPOA, SMCA4, HCFC1, SSDH, 6PGD, IMA1, AGFG1, HNRPF, THOP1, PPP5, ACLY, COPB, COPA, SC24C, SYRC, ATN1, SYYC, RD23B, ANAG, XPO2, TERA, NP1L1, PSA, EIF3B, ATPK, SYMC, TPIS, EIF3E, IF4A1, RS20, PRPS1, PSA6, CDC42, UBC12, UBE2N, ARP3, ARP2, ACTZ, CSN2, ABCE1, RS3A, RL26, RL15, RL27, 1433G, RS7, PRS8, RS8, RS15A, RS16, 1433E, RS23, RS18, RS13, RS11, RUXE, PRS10, RL7A, ERF1, RS4X, RL23A, RS6, RAN, RL23, UB2D2, RS24, RS25, RS26, RL30, RL10A, RL32, RL11, RL8, PPIA, RS27A, RAC1, AP2B1, 1433Z, RSMN, SUMO1, RL38, IF5A1, RACK1, YBOX1, EF1A1, TBA1B, CSK21, F193A, IF4G2, PHC1, TCPB, GSTO1, RL24, RL36A, ARF1, RL19, FOXK1, RBM10, CYC, CLH1, SPTB2, SET, FOXK2, CAP1, OTUD4, EWS, SP3, RL18A, FKBP4, RL6, KMT2A, IF4G1, TLE3, TLE4, 1433F, SRS11, EF1A2, GFPT1, EXOS9,