Chuh KN, Batt AR, Zaro BW, Darabedian N, Marotta NP, Brennan CK, Amirhekmat A, Pratt MR.
The New Chemical Reporter 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc Reveals O-GlcNAc Modification of the Apoptotic Caspases That Can Block the Cleavage/Activation of Caspase-8.
Journal of the American Chemical Society2017
Abstract: O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is required for survival in mammalian cells. Genetic and biochemical experiments have found that increased modification inhibits apoptosis in tissues and cell culture and that lowering O-GlcNAcylation induces cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms by which O-GlcNAcylation might inhibit apoptosis are still being elucidated. Here, we first synthesize a new metabolic chemical reporter, 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc (6AlkGlcNAc), for the identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Subsequent characterization of 6AlkGlcNAc shows that this probe is selectively incorporated into O-GlcNAcylated proteins over cell-surface glycoproteins. Using this probe, we discover that the apoptotic caspases are O-GlcNAcylated, which we confirmed using other techniques, raising the possibility that the modification affects their biochemistry. We then demonstrate that changes in the global levels of O-GlcNAcylation result in a converse change in the kinetics of caspase-8 activation during apoptosis. Finally, we show that caspase-8 is modified at residues that can block its cleavage/activation. Our results provide the first evidence that the caspases may be directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation as a potential antiapoptotic mechanism.
Lopez Aguilar A, Gao Y, Hou X, Lauvau G, Yates JR, Wu P.
Profiling of Protein O-GlcNAcylation in Murine CD8+ Effector- and Memory-like T Cells.
ACS chemical biology2017
Abstract: During an acute infection, antigenic stimulation leads to activation, expansion, and differentiation of naïve CD8+ T cells, first into cytotoxic effector cells and eventually into long-lived memory cells. T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) detect antigens on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the form of antigenic peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I)-encoded molecules and initiate TCR signal transduction network. This process is mediated by phosphorylation of many intracellular signaling proteins. Protein O-GlcNAc modification is another post-translational modification involved in this process, which often has either reciprocal or synergistic roles with phosphorylation. In this study, using a chemoenzymatic glycan labeling technique and proteomics analysis, we compared protein O-GlcNAcylation of murine effector and memory-like CD8+ T cells differentiated in vitro. By quantitative proteomics analysis, we identified 445 proteins that are significantly regulated in either effector- or memory-like T cell subsets. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative analysis identified highly regulated protein clusters that suggest involvement of this post-translational modification in specific cellular processes. In effector-like T cells, protein O-GlcNAcylation is heavily involved in transcriptional and translational processes that drive fast effector T cells proliferation. During the formation of memory-like T cells, protein O-GlcNAcylation is involved in a more specific, perhaps more targeted regulation of transcription, mRNA processing, and translation. Significantly, O-GlcNAc plays a critical role as part of the "histone code" in both CD8+ T cells subgroups.
Lee HJ, Ryu JM, Jung YH, Lee KH, Kim DI, Han HJ.
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 upregulation by O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 protects against hypoxia-induced mouse embryonic stem cell apoptosis via mTOR activation.
Cell death & disease2016
Abstract: Oxygen signaling is critical for stem cell regulation, and oxidative stress-induced stem cell apoptosis decreases the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Hypoxia activates O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of stem cells, which contributes to regulation of cellular metabolism, as well as cell fate. Our study investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation via glucosamine in the protection of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Hypoxia increased mESCs apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, hypoxia also slightly increased the O-GlcNAc level. Glucosamine treatment further enhanced the O-GlcNAc level and prevented hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis, which was suppressed by O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors. In addition, hypoxia regulated several lipid metabolic enzymes, whereas glucosamine increased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1), a lipid metabolic enzyme producing lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, glucosamine-increased O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1, which subsequently leads to Sp1 nuclear translocation and GPAT1 expression. Silencing of GPAT1 by gpat1 siRNA transfection reduced glucosamine-mediated anti-apoptosis in mESCs and reduced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation. Indeed, LPA prevented mESCs from undergoing hypoxia-induced apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its substrates (S6K1 and 4EBP1). Moreover, mTOR inactivation by rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) increased pro-apoptotic proteins expressions and mESC apoptosis. Furthermore, transplantation of non-targeting siRNA and glucosamine-treated mESCs increased cell survival and inhibited flap necrosis in mouse skin flap model. Conversely, silencing of GPAT1 expression reversed those glucosamine effects. In conclusion, enhancing O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 by glucosamine stimulates GPAT1 expression, which leads to inhibition of hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis via mTOR activation.
Wollaston-Hayden EE, Harris RB, Liu B, Bridger R, Xu Y, Wells L.
Global O-GlcNAc Levels Modulate Transcription of the Adipocyte Secretome during Chronic Insulin Resistance.
Frontiers in endocrinology2014
Abstract: Increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and the corresponding increase in intracellular glycosylation of proteins via O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is sufficient to induce insulin resistance (IR) in multiple systems. Previously, our group used shotgun proteomics to identify multiple rodent adipocytokines and secreted proteins whose levels are modulated upon the induction of IR by indirectly and directly modulating O-GlcNAc levels. We have validated the relative levels of several of these factors using immunoblotting. Since adipocytokines levels are regulated primarily at the level of transcription and O-GlcNAc alters the function of many transcription factors, we hypothesized that elevated O-GlcNAc levels on key transcription factors are modulating secreted protein expression. Here, we show that upon the elevation of O-GlcNAc levels and the induction of IR in mature 3T3-F442a adipocytes, the transcript levels of multiple secreted proteins reflect the modulation observed at the protein level. We validate the transcript levels in male mouse models of diabetes. Using inguinal fat pads from the severely IR db/db mouse model and the mildly IR diet-induced mouse model, we have confirmed that the secreted proteins regulated by O-GlcNAc modulation in cell culture are likewise modulated in the whole animal upon a shift to IR. By comparing the promoters of similarly regulated genes, we determine that Sp1 is a common cis-acting element. Furthermore, we show that the LPL and SPARC promoters are enriched for Sp1 and O-GlcNAc modified proteins during insulin resistance in adipocytes. Thus, the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins bound to promoters, including Sp1, is linked to adipocytokine transcription during insulin resistance.
Abstract: Plasma membrane cholesterol accumulation has been implicated in cellular insulin resistance. Given the role of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) as a sensor of nutrient excess, coupled to its involvement in the development of insulin resistance, we delineated whether excess glucose flux through this pathway provokes a cholesterolgenic response induced by hyperinsulinemia. Exposing 3T3-L1 adipocytes to physiologically relevant doses of hyperinsulinemia (250pM-5000pM) induced a dose-dependent gain in the mRNA/protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR). These elevations were associated with elevated plasma membrane cholesterol. Mechanistically, hyperinsulinemia increased glucose flux through the HBP and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of specificity protein 1 (Sp1), known to activate cholesterolgenic gene products such as the sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP1) and HMGR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that increased O-GlcNAc modification of Sp1 resulted in a higher binding affinity of Sp1 to the promoter regions of SREBP1 and HMGR. Luciferase assays confirmed that HMGR promoter activity was elevated under these conditions and that inhibition of the HBP with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON) prevented hyperinsulinemia-induced activation of the HMGR promoter. In addition, both DON and the Sp1 DNA-binding inhibitor mithramycin prevented the hyperinsulinemia-induced increases in HMGR mRNA/protein and plasma membrane cholesterol. In these mithramycin-treated cells, both cortical filamentous actin structure and insulin-stimulated glucose transport were restored. Together, these data suggest a novel mechanism whereby increased HBP activity increases Sp1 transcriptional activation of a cholesterolgenic program, thereby elevating plasma membrane cholesterol and compromising cytoskeletal structure essential for insulin action.
Fricovsky ES, Suarez J, Ihm SH, Scott BT, Suarez-Ramirez JA, Banerjee I, Torres-Gonzalez M, Wang H, Ellrott I, Maya-Ramos L, Villarreal F, Dillmann WH.
Excess protein O-GlcNAcylation and the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology2012
Abstract: We examined the role that enzymatic protein O-GlcNAcylation plays in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy in a mouse model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Mice injected with low-dose streptozotocin and fed a high-fat diet developed mild hyperglycemia and obesity consistent with DM2. Studies were performed from 1 to 6 mo after initiating the DM2 protocol. After 1 mo, DM2 mice showed increased body weight, impaired fasting blood glucose, and hyperinsulinemia. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed left ventricular diastolic dysfunction by 2 mo and O-GlcNAcylation of several cardiac proteins and of nuclear transcription factor Sp1. By 4 mo, systolic dysfunction was observed and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase expression decreased by 50%. Fibrosis was not observed at any timepoint in DM2 mice. Levels of the rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) were increased as early as 2 mo. Fatty acids, which are elevated in DM2 mice, can possibly be linked to excessive protein O-GlcNAcylation levels, as cultured cardiac myocytes in normal glucose treated with oleic acid showed increased O-GlcNAcylation and GFAT levels. These data indicate that the early onset of diastolic dysfunction followed by the loss of systolic function, in the absence of cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis, is associated with increased cardiac protein O-GlcNAcylation and increased O-GlcNAcylation levels of key calcium-handling proteins. A link between excessive protein O-GlcNAcylation and cardiac dysfunction is further supported by results showing that reducing O-GlcNAcylation by O-GlcNAcase overexpression improved cardiac function in the diabetic mouse. In addition, fatty acids play a role in stimulating excess O-GlcNAcylation. The nature and time course of changes observed in cardiac function suggest that protein O-GlcNAcylation plays a mechanistic role in the triggering of diabetic cardiomyopathy in DM2.
Swim-exercised mice show a decreased level of protein O-GlcNAcylation and expression of O-GlcNAc transferase in heart.
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)2011
Abstract: Swim-training exercise in mice leads to cardiac remodeling associated with an improvement in contractile function. Protein O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a posttranslational modification of serine and threonine residues capable of altering protein-protein interactions affecting gene transcription, cell signaling pathways, and general cell physiology. Increased levels of protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart have been associated with pathological conditions such as diabetes, ischemia, and hypertrophic heart failure. In contrast, the impact of physiological exercise on protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart is currently unknown. Swim-training exercise in mice was associated with the development of a physiological hypertrophy characterized by an improvement in contractile function relative to sedentary mice. General protein O-GlcNAcylation was significantly decreased in swim-exercised mice. This effect was mirrored in the level of O-GlcNAcylation of individual proteins such as SP1. The decrease in protein O-GlcNAcylation was associated with a decrease in the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and glutamine-fructose amidotransferase (GFAT) 2 mRNA. O-GlcNAcase (OGA) activity was actually lower in swim-trained than sedentary hearts, suggesting that it did not contribute to the decreased protein O-GlcNAcylation. Thus it appears that exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy is associated with a decrease in protein O-GlcNAcylation, which could potentially contribute to changes in gene expression and other physiological changes associated with exercise.
Lim K, Chang HI.
O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and sterol regulatory element binding protein 2.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications2010
Abstract: O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine on the serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins, is a novel protein modification that is ubiquitous among eukaryotes and implicated in cell regulation. Recent evidence indicates that O-GlcNAc regulates protein-protein interactions. Here we provide evidence that O-GlcNAc interrupts a known interaction between Sp1 and sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), thereby inhibiting expression of the gene encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase 1, which is involved in lipid synthesis. This study suggests a novel mechanism in which lipid biosynthesis may be regulated by O-GlcNAc.
Lim K, Chang HI.
O-GlcNAc modification of Sp1 inhibits the functional interaction between Sp1 and Oct1.
Abstract: Sp1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor that is modified by multiple O-linked N-acetylglucosamines (O-GlcNAc). Previously, O-GlcNAcylation of a specific site of Sp1 was shown to inhibit Sp1 transcriptional activity. Yet, how O-GlcNAc on other modification sites affects Sp1 function and how O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 affects the transcriptional regulation of a target gene remains unknown. Here we show that O-GlcNAc within the second serine/threonine-rich region of Sp1 interrupts a known interaction between Sp1 and Oct1, and inhibits the cooperative activation of the U2 snRNA gene by Sp1 and Oct1.
Lim K, Chang HI.
O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications2009
Abstract: The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.
Yanagisawa M, Yu RK.
O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosaminylation in mouse embryonic neural precursor cells.
Journal of neuroscience research2009
Abstract: In neural stem cells (NSCs), glycoconjugates and carbohydrate antigens are known not only to serve as excellent cell surface biomarkers for cellular differentiation and development but also to play important functional roles in determining cell fate. O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), which modifies nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins on the serine and threonine residues, is also expected to play an important regulatory role. It is not known, however, whether O-GlcNAc is expressed in NSCs or what the function of this expression is. In this study, we evaluated the patterns and possible functions of O-GlcNAcylation in mouse embryonic neuroepithelial cells (NECs), which are known to be rich in NSCs. We confirmed the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase, O-GlcNAcase, and several O-GlcNAcylated proteins in NECs. Treatment of NECs with O-GlcNAcase inhibitors, PUGNAc and streptozotocin, induced robust accumulation of O-GlcNAc in NECs and reduction of number of NECs. In O-GlcNAcase inhibitor-treated NECs, the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway, important for proliferation and survival, respectively, were intact, but caspase-3, an executioner for cell death, was activated. These results suggest the possibility that O-GlcNAc is involved in cell death signaling in NECs. Furthermore, in NECs, we identified an O-GlcNAc-modified protein, Sp1 transcription factor. Our study is the first to evaluate expression and functions of O-GlcNAc in NECs.
Chung SS, Kim JH, Park HS, Choi HH, Lee KW, Cho YM, Lee HK, Park KS.
Activation of PPARgamma negatively regulates O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications2008
Abstract: O-GlcNAcylation is a kind of post-translational modification and many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated. In this study, we demonstrated that thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are used as insulin sensitizer, specifically inhibited the O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 but did not affect the O-GlcNAcylation of the total proteins in cell culture systems and mouse models. This effect was mediated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation and probably by synthesis of a specific protein induced by PPARgamma activation. In addition, we demonstrated that the O-GlcNAcylation sites in the zinc-finger domain were involved in the transcriptional activation of Sp1 and that rosiglitazone, a member of TZDs, affected Sp1 transcriptional activity partially by regulating the O-GlcNAcylation level of these sites. Considering the role of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance and Sp1 in the hyperglycemia-induced gene expression, the regulation of Sp1 O-GlcNAcylation by TZDs may help to explain the function of TZDs as a treatment for insulin resistance and diabetes.
Singleton KD, Wischmeyer PE.
Glutamine induces heat shock protein expression via O-glycosylation and phosphorylation of HSF-1 and Sp1.
JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition2008
Abstract: Glutamine (GLN) improves outcome in experimental and clinical states of illness and injury. The authors hypothesized GLN-mediated enhancement of O-glycosylation and subsequent phosphorylation of key transcription factors in the HSP70 pathway would lead to increased HSP70 expression following experimental sepsis.
Abstract: We demonstrate that O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a ubiquitous protein modification in eukaryotes, suppresses thermal inactivation of Sp1 transcription factor. 6-Diazo-5-oxonorleucine treatment or O-GlcNAcase overexpression, which reduced O-GlcNAc levels on Sp1, deteriorated thermal stability of Sp1 and O-GlcNAc modified molecules of Sp1 resist thermal aggregation in vitro. We also showed that heat-induced elevation of heat shock protein 70 was facilitated by Sp1 but blunted under low O-GlcNAc levels, suggesting that O-GlcNAc might upregulate the expression of heat shock protein 70 through thermoprotection of Sp1, which eventually enhanced cellular thermotolerance.
O'Donnell N, Zachara NE, Hart GW, Marth JD.
Ogt-dependent X-chromosome-linked protein glycosylation is a requisite modification in somatic cell function and embryo viability.
Molecular and cellular biology2004
Abstract: The Ogt gene encodes a glycosyltransferase that links N-acetylglucosamine to serine and threonine residues (O-GlcNAc) on nuclear and cytosolic proteins. Efforts to study a mammalian model of Ogt deficiency have been hindered by the requirement for this X-linked gene in embryonic stem cell viability, necessitating the use of conditional mutagenesis in vivo. We have extended these observations by segregating Ogt mutation to distinct somatic cell types, including neurons, thymocytes, and fibroblasts, the latter by an approach developed for inducible Ogt mutagenesis. We show that Ogt mutation results in the loss of O-GlcNAc and causes T-cell apoptosis, neuronal tau hyperphosphorylation, and fibroblast growth arrest with altered expression of c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc, Sp1, and p27. We further segregated the mutant Ogt allele to parental gametes by oocyte- and spermatid-specific Cre-loxP mutagenesis. By this we established an in vivo genetic approach that supports the ontogeny of female heterozygotes bearing mutant X-linked genes required during embryogenesis. Successful production and characterization of such female heterozygotes further indicates that mammalian cells commonly require a functional Ogt allele. We find that O-GlcNAc modulates protein phosphorylation and expression among essential and conserved cell signaling pathways.