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Sacoman JL, Dagda RY, Burnham-Marusich AR, Dagda RK, Berninsone PM. Mitochondrial O-GlcNAc Transferase (mOGT) Regulates Mitochondrial Structure, Function, and Survival in HeLa Cells. The Journal of biological chemistry 2017 292(11) 28100784
Abstract:
O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins and regulates numerous biological processes. OGT is encoded by a single gene that yields nucleocytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms. To date, the role of the mitochondrial isoform of OGT (mOGT) remains largely unknown. Using high throughput proteomics, we identified 84 candidate mitochondrial glycoproteins, of which 44 are novel. Notably, two of the candidate glycoproteins identified (cytochrome oxidase 2 (COX2) and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 4 (MT-ND4)) are encoded by mitochondrial DNA. Using siRNA in HeLa cells, we found that reducing endogenous mOGT expression leads to alterations in mitochondrial structure and function, including Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation, reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, and a significant loss of mitochondrial content in the absence of mitochondrial ROS. These defects are associated with a compensatory increase in oxidative phosphorylation per mitochondrion. mOGT is also critical for cell survival; siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous mOGT protected cells against toxicity mediated by rotenone, a complex I inhibitor. Conversely, reduced expression of both nucleocytoplasmic (ncOGT) and mitochondrial (mOGT) OGT isoforms is associated with increased mitochondrial respiration and elevated glycolysis, suggesting that ncOGT is a negative regulator of cellular bioenergetics. Last, we determined that mOGT is probably involved in the glycosylation of a restricted set of mitochondrial targets. We identified four proteins implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism regulation as candidate substrates of mOGT, including leucine-rich PPR-containing protein and mitochondrial aconitate hydratase. Our findings suggest that mOGT is catalytically active in vivo and supports mitochondrial structure, health, and survival, whereas ncOGT predominantly regulates cellular bioenergetics.
Ma J, Liu T, Wei AC, Banerjee P, O'Rourke B, Hart GW. O-GlcNAcomic Profiling Identifies Widespread O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosamine Modification (O-GlcNAcylation) in Oxidative Phosphorylation System Regulating Cardiac Mitochondrial Function. The Journal of biological chemistry 2015 290(49) 26446791
Abstract:
Dynamic cycling of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on nucleocytoplasmic proteins serves as a nutrient sensor to regulate numerous biological processes. However, mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation and its effects on function are largely unexplored. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the proteome and O-GlcNAcome of cardiac mitochondria from rats acutely (12 h) treated without or with thiamet-G (TMG), a potent and specific inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase. We then determined the functional consequences in mitochondria isolated from the two groups. O-GlcNAcomic profiling finds that over 88 mitochondrial proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, with the oxidative phosphorylation system as a major target. Moreover, in comparison with controls, cardiac mitochondria from TMG-treated rats did not exhibit altered protein abundance but showed overall elevated O-GlcNAcylation of many proteins. However, O-GlcNAc was unexpectedly down-regulated at certain sites of specific proteins. Concomitantly, TMG treatment resulted in significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, ATP production rates, and enhanced threshold for permeability transition pore opening by Ca(2+). Our data reveal widespread and dynamic mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation, serving as a regulator to their function.
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