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Xu S, Zheng J, Xiao H, Wu R. Simultaneously Identifying and Distinguishing Glycoproteins with O-GlcNAc and O-GalNAc (the Tn Antigen) in Human Cancer Cells. Analytical chemistry 2022 35132862
Abstract:
Glycoproteins with diverse glycans are essential to human cells, and subtle differences in glycan structures may result in entirely different functions. One typical example is proteins modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) and O-linked α-N-acetylgalactosamine (O-GalNAc) (the Tn antigen), in which the two glycans have very similar structures and identical chemical compositions, making them extraordinarily challenging to be distinguished. Here, we developed an effective method benefiting from selective enrichment and the enzymatic specificity to simultaneously identify and distinguish glycoproteins with O-GlcNAc and O-GalNAc. Metabolic labeling was combined with bioorthogonal chemistry for enriching glycoproteins modified with O-GlcNAc and O-GalNAc. Then, the enzymatic reaction with galactose oxidase was utilized to specifically oxidize O-GalNAc, but not O-GlcNAc, generating the different tags between glycopeptides with O-GlcNAc and O-GalNAc that can be easily distinguishable by mass spectrometry (MS). Among O-GlcNAcylated proteins commonly identified in three types of human cells, those related to transcription and RNA binding are highly enriched. Cell-specific features are also revealed. Among glycoproteins exclusively in Jurkat cells, those involved in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection are overrepresented, which is consistent with the cell line source and suggests that protein O-GlcNAcylation participated in the response to the virus infection. Furthermore, glycoproteins with the Tn antigen have different subcellular distributions in different cells, which may be attributed to the distinct mechanisms for the formation of protein O-GalNAcylation.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
RBM47, E2F8, SBNO1, CNOT1, HMX3, BTBDB, RHG32, P121C, PDLI1, SNP23, PSMD9, TAF4, ARI1A, ABLM1, STX16, HGS, MYPT1, SC16A, SR140, SET1A, FYB1, TIF1A, PPM1G, SHIP2, EIF3D, NUP42, KDM6A, TET3, SI1L1, DC1L2, HNRPR, PRPF3, TPD54, E41L2, ZN207, BUB3, AKAP8, ZNRD2, MYPT2, GANP, HNRPQ, DIAP1, PLIN3, MAFK, TBL1X, MITF, N4BP1, ZC11A, T22D2, PP6R2, ANR17, BCAS1, NCOR1, SPAG7, TIPRL, SPF30, TOX4, TOX, PCF11, AGFG2, ZFPL1, KIF4A, SC24A, SC24B, CNOT4, ASML, M4K4, BPNT1, PX11B, CHK2, LMNA, GLPA, TFR1, ALDOA, GCR, HSPB1, GNAI2, RLA1, RLA2, RLA0, K1C18, K2C8, RB, CATD, SYEP, PTPRC, VIME, GSTP1, HMGB1, ROA1, ATX1L, DERPC, ZN865, TPR, LAMP2, EF2, PLSL, PLST, GLU2B, HCLS1, PO2F1, RAC2, ATF2, ZEP1, TFE2, MUC1, CREB1, JUNB, ATF7, PTN2, DDX5, SON, ATF1, CSK22, NFKB1, FLNA, PUR2, RFX1, CBL, COF1, PTBP1, ARNT, DCK, PYR1, MAP4, CALX, 3MG, PRDX6, CDC27, AMRP, CLIP1, ZEP2, HNRH1, 1433S, ELF1, LSP1, PTN7, IRS1, ADDA, NU214, CUX1, TXLNA, MLH1, ECHA, IF2G, HNF4A, LAP2B, GPDM, RANG, KI67, CRKL, CAPZB, RFX5, SOX2, CAMLG, NASP, FAS, CDK8, SRP09, YLPM1, NU153, RBP2, TAF6, EMD, LRBA, PAPOA, HCFC1, HDGF, AGFG1, HNRPF, HXK2, NUP98, ATX1, RD23B, AF10, AF17, DSRAD, FOXA1, HNRH2, NU107, TPIS, PSME3, TPM4, F193A, GTF2I, PHC1, PRKDC, MAP1A, SARNP, FOXK1, FBLN2, FAM3A, EM55, NFKB2, HNRPU, SPTB2, FOXK2, RUNX1, FLI1, SATB1, SP2, MP2K1, NUCB1, KMT2A, IF4G1, TLE3, TLE4, KPCT, PSME1, GABPA, PRDX1, ACK1, AHNK, IFFO1, GALT2, SRBP2, TROAP, BPTF, TP53B, CBX3, NFAC2, PICAL, CUL4B, ASPP2, NFYC, CDK13, VEZF1, UBP2L, SRC8, CAPR1, LAGE3, PUM1, MDC1, EPN4, RRP1B, NCOA6, GSE1, UBP10, 2A5D, MEF2D, LASP1, NUMA1, CND1, TEBP, PCBP1, RBMS2, SF3A1, TSN, SF01, MED1, TRIP6, ELF2, TAB1, ZFHX3, ZYX, ADRM1, DPYL2, TAF9, MAPK3, CSPP1, PDS5A, QSER1, AAK1, LRRF1, VP26B, ACSF3, TPRN, CRTC2, PAN3, YIF1B, PRC2B, CEP78, ZN362, FKB15, LRIF1, CAF17, UBAP2, NT5D1, AHDC1, LYRM7, RPRD2, ZN318, TASO2, TBC9B, ARID2, C19L1, ABLM2, TWF2, GRHL2, CPZIP, NIPBL, LIN54, ZCHC8, C2D1A, SCYL2, NFRKB, RSBNL, MDEAS, ZC3HE, LARP1, SAMD1, FIP1, CRTC3, SAS6, MCAF1, BCOR, GGYF2, NBEL2, CO039, SRCAP, UBN2, TM1L2, ASXL2, SPT6H, MEPCE, BOP, KDM3B, ERMP1, TRM1L, ZCCHV, KANL1, POGZ, ZFY16, NUFP2, MAVS, EMSY, RAI1, I2BP2, SRGP1, RHG30, SH3R1, HUWE1, YTHD3, GALT7, LYRIC, BCL9L, CASZ1, TSYL5, DDX42, CACL1, P66A, I2BP1, VRK3, FOXP4, ARI3B, TEX2, MGAP, ANKH1, SUGP1, MILK2, ERF3B, K2013, PHAR4, XRN1, ZN687, FNBP4, ARFG1, ENAH, NHLC2, AVL9, XXLT1, GOLM1, TXND5, PAIRB, CHSTE, SLAI1, TNR6A, PHC3, SP20H, VP37A, KMT2C, ARI1B, KNL1, NEDD1, ALMS1, PREX1, DLG5, GEMI5, PIGO, UBS3B, WIPF2, FRS2, PDC6I, ZFN2B, TPC12, SEN15, PCNP, LMO7, ATX2L, CSKI2, PSPC1, P66B, GBF1, SMG7, RTF1, TOPB1, PHF3, MAML1, TTC9A, PRCC, RREB1, CBP, DDX17, SEM4D, ARHG1, GPKOW, FUBP2, LPP, TTC28, PF21A, FAF2, ESS2, EDC3, A7L3B, P121A, PDLI5, FUBP3, VCIP1, PDLI2, Z512B, ZFR, EP400, PRRC1, NOL4L, RBM14, PURB, NACC1, CIC, MED15, NUDC1, SIN3A, AEDO, MINT, HTF4, CNN2, RGPD5, ATX2, HCD2, S29A1, ARI3A, SH3G1, TRIR, DPH2, MGME1, ERP44, ESYT1, CCM2, CNPY3, WAC, DIDO1, HGH1, MMTA2, PAXX, NTM1A, RBM4, SGPP1, HEMGN, HDHD5, YTHD1, FTO, CEP44, BC11B, PITH1, SP130, BRD8, RGAP1, I2BPL, ADNP, DHX36, FOXP1, CENPH, WNK1, E41L1, ZHX3, YTDC2, RANB3, PHAX, ECT2, CNO10, MLXIP, PKHA5, PKHA1, RC3H2, LY9, RDH14, TAF9B, NCOA5, TANC2, TNR6C, CHD8, SDF2L, ARFG3, UBN1, RTN4, PDLI7, CHSTC, STRN4, PNO1, BMP2K, RBM12, STAU2, TXLNG, PNPO, CARF, TAB2, TMOD3, CDK12, F120A, HPBP1, ITSN2, CNOT2, CHMP5, VAPA, CAMP3, RBM27, KANL3, RERE, ZN219, SE1L1, STAP2, LIMD1, TCF20, SEPT9, UBQL2, TRPS1, S30BP, NRBP, EI2BD, SIX4, APC7, TASOR, GMEB2, PARP4, MA1B1, ACINU, ZHX1, CDV3, MRTFB, ZBT21, YETS2, HECD1, PKCB1, SCAF8, PP6R1, TRI33, TNR6B, ZC3H4, SHAN2, SRRM2, CTND2, SCML2, ZN148, T3JAM, VDAC3, AKAP2, DDX52, NOP58, GIT1, ZN281, SIT1, SALL2, ARIP4, CRBG1, HYOU1, KLF12, PRC2C, YTHD2, CD2AP, TNPO3, SRPRB, TSSC4, NUBP2, HCFC2, FHOD1, NCOR2, GMEB1, NCOA3, S23IP
Species: Homo sapiens
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Wells L, Slawson C, Hart GW. The E2F-1 associated retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product is modified by O-GlcNAc. Amino acids 2011 40(3) 20680651
Abstract:
The retinoblastoma-susceptibility gene product (pRB) is a classical tumor suppressor. pRB regulates a number of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. One of the essential mechanisms by which pRB, and the related p107 and p130 family members, act is through its interactions with the E2F class of transcription factors. E2F-1 transcription is necessary for entry into S-phase during the cell-cycle. pRB binds E2F-1 and represses transcription via recruitment of a histone deacetylase complex and by preventing co-activator complexes from binding E2F-1. Current dogma suggests that phosphorylation of pRB during mid- to late-G1 leads to release of E2F-1 and E2F-1 dependent transcriptional activation of essential S-phase genes. Here we show that pRB, and the related p107 protein, are modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in an in vitro transcription/translation system. Furthermore, we show in vivo that pRB is more heavily glycosylated in G1 of the cell-cycle when pRB is known to be in an active, hypophosphorylated state. Finally, we demonstrate that E2F-1 associated pRB is modified by O-GlcNAc. These studies suggest that regulation of pRB function(s) may be controlled by dynamic O-GlcNAc modification, as well as phosphorylation.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
RB, RBL1, NUP62, E2F1
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