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Ma J, Banerjee P, Whelan SA, Liu T, Wei AC, Ramirez-Correa G, McComb ME, Costello CE, O'Rourke B, Murphy A, Hart GW. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Dysregulated Mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation in Diabetic Hearts. Journal of proteome research 2016 15(7) 27213235
Abstract:
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a post-translational modification on serine and threonine residues of many proteins, plays crucial regulatory roles in diverse biological events. As a nutrient sensor, O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins underlies the pathology of diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. However, mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation, especially in response to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes, has been poorly explored. We performed a comparative O-GlcNAc profiling of mitochondria from control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat hearts by using an improved β-elimination/Michael addition with isotopic DTT reagents (BEMAD) followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. In total, 86 mitochondrial proteins, involved in diverse pathways, were O-GlcNAcylated. Among them, many proteins have site-specific alterations in O-GlcNAcylation in response to diabetes, which suggests that protein O-GlcNAcylation is a novel layer of regulation mediating adaptive changes in mitochondrial metabolism during the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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Ma J, Liu T, Wei AC, Banerjee P, O'Rourke B, Hart GW. O-GlcNAcomic Profiling Identifies Widespread O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosamine Modification (O-GlcNAcylation) in Oxidative Phosphorylation System Regulating Cardiac Mitochondrial Function. The Journal of biological chemistry 2015 290(49) 26446791
Abstract:
Dynamic cycling of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on nucleocytoplasmic proteins serves as a nutrient sensor to regulate numerous biological processes. However, mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation and its effects on function are largely unexplored. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the proteome and O-GlcNAcome of cardiac mitochondria from rats acutely (12 h) treated without or with thiamet-G (TMG), a potent and specific inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase. We then determined the functional consequences in mitochondria isolated from the two groups. O-GlcNAcomic profiling finds that over 88 mitochondrial proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, with the oxidative phosphorylation system as a major target. Moreover, in comparison with controls, cardiac mitochondria from TMG-treated rats did not exhibit altered protein abundance but showed overall elevated O-GlcNAcylation of many proteins. However, O-GlcNAc was unexpectedly down-regulated at certain sites of specific proteins. Concomitantly, TMG treatment resulted in significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, ATP production rates, and enhanced threshold for permeability transition pore opening by Ca(2+). Our data reveal widespread and dynamic mitochondrial protein O-GlcNAcylation, serving as a regulator to their function.
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Cao W, Cao J, Huang J, Yao J, Yan G, Xu H, Yang P. Discovery and confirmation of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in rat liver mitochondria by combination of mass spectrometry and immunological methods. PloS one 2013 8(10) 24098488
Abstract:
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is an important post-translational modification (PTM) consisting of a single N-acetylglucosamine moiety attached via an O-β-glycosidic linkage to serine and threonine residues. Glycosylation with O-GlcNAc occurs on myriad nuclear and cytosolic proteins from almost all functional classes. However, with respect to O-GlcNAcylated proteins special in mitochondria, little attention has been paid. In this study, we combined mass spectrometry and immunological methods to perform global exploration of O-GlcNAcylated proteins specific in mitochondria of rat liver. First, highly purified mitochondrial proteins were obviously shown to be O-GlcNAcylated by immunoblot profiling. Then, β-elimination followed by Michael Addition with Dithiothreitol (BEMAD) treatment and LC-MS/MS were performed to enrich and identify O-GlcNAcylated mitochondrial proteins, resulting in an unambiguous assignment of 14 O-GlcNAcylation sites, mapping to 11 O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Furthermore, the identified O-GlcNAcylated mitochondrial proteins were fully validated by both electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ETD/MS/MS) and western blot. Thus, for the first time, our study definitely not only identified but also validated that some mitochondrial proteins in rat liver are O-GlcNAcylated. Interestingly, all of these O-GlcNAcylated mitochondrial proteins are enzymes, the majority of which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes, such as urea cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle and lipid metabolism, indicating a role for protein O-GlcNAcylation in mitochondrial function.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
CP1A1, ATPB, ACSL1
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Akimoto Y, Miura Y, Toda T, Wolfert MA, Wells L, Boons GJ, Hart GW, Endo T, Kawakami H. Morphological changes in diabetic kidney are associated with increased O-GlcNAcylation of cytoskeletal proteins including α-actinin 4. Clinical proteomics 2011 8(1) 21933451
Abstract:
The objective of the present study is to identify proteins that change in the extent of the modification with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) in the kidney from diabetic model Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and to discuss the relation between O-GlcNAcylation and the pathological condition in diabetes.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
ATPB, PYC, ACTB, TBA1A, MYH9, ACTN4
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Clark PM, Dweck JF, Mason DE, Hart CR, Buck SB, Peters EC, Agnew BJ, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Direct in-gel fluorescence detection and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008 130(35) 18683930
Abstract:
We report an advanced chemoenzymatic strategy for the direct fluorescence detection, proteomic analysis, and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAc residues are selectively labeled with fluorescent or biotin tags using an engineered galactosyltransferase enzyme and [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry. We demonstrate that this approach can be used for direct in-gel detection and mass spectrometric identification of O-GlcNAc proteins, identifying 146 novel glycoproteins from the mammalian brain. Furthermore, we show that the method can be exploited to quantify dynamic changes in cellular O-GlcNAc levels and to image O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins within cells. As such, this strategy enables studies of O-GlcNAc glycosylation that were previously inaccessible and provides a new tool for uncovering the physiological functions of O-GlcNAc.
Park J, Kwon H, Kang Y, Kim Y. Proteomic analysis of O-GlcNAc modifications derived from streptozotocin and glucosamine induced beta-cell apoptosis. Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 2007 40(6) 18047804
Abstract:
The post-translational modifications of Ser and Thr residues by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), i.e., O-GlcNAcylation, is considered a key means of regulating signaling, in a manner analogous to protein phosphorylation. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) stimulates O-GlcNAcylation, and that this may be responsible for many of the manifestations of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To determine whether excessive O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins results in pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, we increased nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation levels in beta cells by exposing them to streptozotocin and/or glucosamine. Streptozotocin and glucosamine co-treatment increased OGlcNAcylated proteomic patterns as assessed by immunoblotting, and these increases in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylations were accompanied by impaired insulin secretion and enhanced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This observed beta cell dysfunction prompted us to examine Akt and Bcl-2 family member proteins to determine which proteins are O-GlcNAcylated under conditions of high HBP throughput, and how these proteins are associated with beta cell apoptosis. Eventually, we identified ten new O-GlcNAcylated proteins that were expressed during beta cell apoptosis, and analyzed the functional implications of these proteins in relation to pancreatic beta cell dysfunction.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
ENOA, PDIA1, EF2, KCRB, ATPB, RSSA, TERA, ANXA4, CH60, ACTG, TBB5, K2C8, TCPE, QCR1, CLIC1, Q6P3V8, IDH3A
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