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Clark PM, Dweck JF, Mason DE, Hart CR, Buck SB, Peters EC, Agnew BJ, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Direct in-gel fluorescence detection and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008 130(35) 18683930
We report an advanced chemoenzymatic strategy for the direct fluorescence detection, proteomic analysis, and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAc residues are selectively labeled with fluorescent or biotin tags using an engineered galactosyltransferase enzyme and [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry. We demonstrate that this approach can be used for direct in-gel detection and mass spectrometric identification of O-GlcNAc proteins, identifying 146 novel glycoproteins from the mammalian brain. Furthermore, we show that the method can be exploited to quantify dynamic changes in cellular O-GlcNAc levels and to image O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins within cells. As such, this strategy enables studies of O-GlcNAc glycosylation that were previously inaccessible and provides a new tool for uncovering the physiological functions of O-GlcNAc.
Khidekel N, Ficarro SB, Peters EC, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Exploring the O-GlcNAc proteome: direct identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins from the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004 101(36) 15340146
The covalent modification of intracellular proteins by O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as a crucial regulatory posttranslational modification akin to phosphorylation. Numerous studies point to the significance of O-GlcNAc in cellular processes such as nutrient sensing, protein degradation, and gene expression. Despite its importance, the breadth and functional roles of O-GlcNAc are only beginning to be elucidated. Advances in our understanding will require the development of new strategies for the detection and study of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in vivo. Herein we report the direct, high-throughput analysis of O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins from the mammalian brain. The proteins were identified by using a chemoenzymatic approach that exploits an engineered galactosyltransferase enzyme to selectively label O-GlcNAc proteins with a ketone-biotin tag. The tag permits enrichment of low-abundance O-GlcNAc species from complex mixtures and localization of the modification to short amino acid sequences. Using this approach, we discovered 25 O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins from the brain, including regulatory proteins associated with gene expression, neuronal signaling, and synaptic plasticity. The functional diversity represented by this set of proteins suggests an expanded role for O-GlcNAc in regulating neuronal function. Moreover, the chemoenzymatic strategy described here should prove valuable for identifying O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in various tissues and facilitate studies of the physiological significance of O-GlcNAc across the proteome.
Ding M, Vandré DD. High molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins contain O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine. The Journal of biological chemistry 1996 271(21) 8647865
We have examined the post-translational modification of high molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) have shown that MAP1, MAP2, and MAP4 are glycosylated. The presence of carbohydrate residues on these proteins was indicated by labeling with biotin hydrazide following periodate oxidation, a specific and well established method for detecting saccharide moieties on proteins. Both MAP2 and MAP4 were also labeled in vitro by UDP-[3H]galactose in the presence of galactosyltransferase. Labeling by galactosyltransferase indicated that MAP2 and MAP4 contained terminal nonreducing GlcNAc residues, and they appeared to be O-linked to the proteins as shown by their sensitivity to beta-elimination. Chromatographic analysis showed that the GlcNAc residues were directly linked to the proteins as monosaccharides. Thus, we have added MAP2 and MAP4 to the list of intracellular O-GlcNAc-modified proteins, which includes other cytoskeletal proteins such as cytokeratins 8, 13, and 18 and neurofilament proteins NF-L and NF-M. We further characterized the O-GlcNAc modification of MAP2, and stoichiometric analysis indicated that nearly 10% of the MAP2 isolated from rat brain is modified by O-GlcNAc. However, this estimate is thought to reflect the minimal level of O-GlcNAc modification present on MAP2. We have also shown that both the O-GlcNAc and biotin hydrazide-reactive carbohydrate moieties are located on the projection domain of MAP2. Three O-GlcNAc-containing peaks were observed following fast protein liquid chromatography of a tryptic digest of MAP2, suggesting that multiple modification sites exist. The specific modification sites and functional significance of the O-GlcNAc glycosylation on the high Mr MAPs remain to be determined.
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