REFERENCES



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Rexach JE, Clark PM, Mason DE, Neve RL, Peters EC, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Dynamic O-GlcNAc modification regulates CREB-mediated gene expression and memory formation. Nature chemical biology 2012 8(3) 22267118
Abstract:
The transcription factor cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) is a key regulator of many neuronal processes, including brain development, circadian rhythm and long-term memory. Studies of CREB have focused on its phosphorylation, although the diversity of CREB functions in the brain suggests additional forms of regulation. Here we expand on a chemoenzymatic strategy for quantifying glycosylation stoichiometries to characterize the functional roles of CREB glycosylation in neurons. We show that CREB is dynamically modified with an O-linked β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine sugar in response to neuronal activity and that glycosylation represses CREB-dependent transcription by impairing its association with CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC; also known as transducer of regulated CREB activity). Blocking glycosylation of CREB alters cellular function and behavioral plasticity, enhancing both axonal and dendritic growth and long-term memory consolidation. Our findings demonstrate a new role for O-glycosylation in memory formation and provide a mechanistic understanding of how glycosylation contributes to critical neuronal functions. Moreover, we identify a previously unknown mechanism for the regulation of activity-dependent gene expression, neural development and memory.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
CREB1, CREB1
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Rexach JE, Rogers CJ, Yu SH, Tao J, Sun YE, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Quantification of O-glycosylation stoichiometry and dynamics using resolvable mass tags. Nature chemical biology 2010 6(9) 20657584
Abstract:
Mechanistic studies of O-GlcNAc glycosylation have been limited by an inability to monitor the glycosylation stoichiometries of proteins obtained from cells. Here we describe a powerful method to visualize the O-GlcNAc-modified protein subpopulation using resolvable polyethylene glycol mass tags. This approach enables rapid quantification of in vivo glycosylation levels on endogenous proteins without the need for protein purification, advanced instrumentation or expensive radiolabels. In addition, it establishes the glycosylation state (for example, mono-, di-, tri-) of proteins, providing information regarding overall O-GlcNAc site occupancy that cannot be obtained using mass spectrometry. Finally, we apply this strategy to rapidly assess the complex interplay between glycosylation and phosphorylation and discover an unexpected reverse 'yin-yang' relationship on the transcriptional repressor MeCP2 that was undetectable by traditional methods. We anticipate that this mass-tagging strategy will advance our understanding of O-GlcNAc glycosylation, as well as other post-translational modifications and poorly understood glycosylation motifs.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
SP1, SYN1, CREB1, NUP62, MECP2, SYN2, OGA, GORS2
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Lamarre-Vincent N, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Dynamic glycosylation of the transcription factor CREB: a potential role in gene regulation. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2003 125(22) 12769553
Abstract:
We report that CREB (cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein), a transcription factor essential for long-term memory, is O-GlcNAc glycosylated in the mammalian brain. Glycosylation occurs at two sites within the Q2 domain and disrupts the interaction between CREB and TAFII130, thereby repressing the transcriptional activity of CREB in vitro. These findings have important implications for the role of O-GlcNAc glycosylation in gene regulation, and they provide a link between O-GlcNAc and information storage processes in the brain.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
CREB1
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