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Papanicolaou KN, Jung J, Ashok D, Zhang W, Modaressanavi A, Avila E, Foster DB, Zachara NE, O'Rourke B. Inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation impacts p38 and Erk1/2 signaling and perturbs cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The Journal of biological chemistry 2023 299(3) 36642184
The dynamic cycling of O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) on and off Ser/Thr residues of intracellular proteins, termed O-GlcNAcylation, is mediated by the conserved enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase. O-GlcNAc cycling is important in homeostatic and stress responses, and its perturbation sensitizes the heart to ischemic and other injuries. Despite considerable progress, many molecular pathways impacted by O-GlcNAcylation in the heart remain unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a central signaling cascade that coordinates developmental, physiological, and pathological responses in the heart. The developmental or adaptive arm of MAPK signaling is primarily mediated by Erk kinases, while the pathophysiologic arm is mediated by p38 and Jnk kinases. Here, we examine whether O-GlcNAcylation affects MAPK signaling in cardiac myocytes, focusing on Erk1/2 and p38 in basal and hypertrophic conditions induced by phenylephrine. Using metabolic labeling of glycans coupled with alkyne-azide "click" chemistry, we found that Erk1/2 and p38 are O-GlcNAcylated. Supporting the regulation of p38 by O-GlcNAcylation, the OGT inhibitor, OSMI-1, triggers the phosphorylation of p38, an event that involves the NOX2-Ask1-MKK3/6 signaling axis and also the noncanonical activator Tab1. Additionally, OGT inhibition blocks the phenylephrine-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Consistent with perturbed MAPK signaling, OSMI-1-treated cardiomyocytes have a blunted hypertrophic response to phenylephrine, decreased expression of cTnT (key component of the contractile apparatus), and increased expression of maladaptive natriuretic factors Anp and Bnp. Collectively, these studies highlight new roles for O-GlcNAcylation in maintaining a balanced activity of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPKs during hypertrophic growth responses in cardiomyocytes.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
M3K7, CREB1, MK03, MP2K2, HSPB1, MK01, MK14, MP2K1, CDC37
Dinić S, Arambašić J, Mihailović M, Uskoković A, Grdović N, Marković J, Karadžić B, Poznanović G, Vidaković M. Decreased O-GlcNAcylation of the key proteins in kinase and redox signalling pathways is a novel mechanism of the beneficial effect of α-lipoic acid in diabetic liver. The British journal of nutrition 2013 110(3) 23312093
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment with a-lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring compound possessing antioxidant activity, on liver oxidant stress in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes by examining potential mechanistic points that influence changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and CuZn/Mn superoxide dismutase(s) (SOD). LA was administered for 4 weeks by daily intraperitoneal injections (10 mg/kg) to STZ-induced diabetic rats, starting from the last STZ treatment. LA administration practically normalised the activities of the indicators of hepatocellular injury, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and lowered oxidative stress, as observed by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assay, restored the reduced glutathione:glutathione disulphide ratio and increased the protein sulfhydryl group content. The lower level of DNA damage detected by the comet assay revealed that LA reduced cytotoxic signalling, exerting a hepatoprotective effect. The LA-treated diabetic rats displayed restored specific enzymatic activities of CAT, CuZnSOD and MnSOD. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that LA restored CAT gene expression to its physiological level and increased CuZnSOD gene expression, but the gene expression of MnSOD remained at the diabetic level. Although the amounts of CAT and CuZnSOD protein expression returned to the control levels, the protein expression of MnSOD was elevated. These results suggested that LA administration affected CAT and CuZnSOD expression mainly at the transcriptional level, and MnSOD expression at the post-transcriptional level. The observed LA-promoted decrease in the O-GlcNAcylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein 38 kinase, NF-kB, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and the antioxidative enzymes themselves in diabetic rats suggests that the regulatory mechanisms that supported the changes in antioxidative enzyme expression were also influenced by post-translational mechanisms.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
Clark PM, Dweck JF, Mason DE, Hart CR, Buck SB, Peters EC, Agnew BJ, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Direct in-gel fluorescence detection and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008 130(35) 18683930
We report an advanced chemoenzymatic strategy for the direct fluorescence detection, proteomic analysis, and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAc residues are selectively labeled with fluorescent or biotin tags using an engineered galactosyltransferase enzyme and [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry. We demonstrate that this approach can be used for direct in-gel detection and mass spectrometric identification of O-GlcNAc proteins, identifying 146 novel glycoproteins from the mammalian brain. Furthermore, we show that the method can be exploited to quantify dynamic changes in cellular O-GlcNAc levels and to image O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins within cells. As such, this strategy enables studies of O-GlcNAc glycosylation that were previously inaccessible and provides a new tool for uncovering the physiological functions of O-GlcNAc.
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