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Ma J, Banerjee P, Whelan SA, Liu T, Wei AC, Ramirez-Correa G, McComb ME, Costello CE, O'Rourke B, Murphy A, Hart GW. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Dysregulated Mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation in Diabetic Hearts. Journal of proteome research 2016 15(7) 27213235
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), a post-translational modification on serine and threonine residues of many proteins, plays crucial regulatory roles in diverse biological events. As a nutrient sensor, O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins underlies the pathology of diabetic complications including cardiomyopathy. However, mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation, especially in response to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes, has been poorly explored. We performed a comparative O-GlcNAc profiling of mitochondria from control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat hearts by using an improved β-elimination/Michael addition with isotopic DTT reagents (BEMAD) followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. In total, 86 mitochondrial proteins, involved in diverse pathways, were O-GlcNAcylated. Among them, many proteins have site-specific alterations in O-GlcNAcylation in response to diabetes, which suggests that protein O-GlcNAcylation is a novel layer of regulation mediating adaptive changes in mitochondrial metabolism during the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Clark PM, Dweck JF, Mason DE, Hart CR, Buck SB, Peters EC, Agnew BJ, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Direct in-gel fluorescence detection and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008 130(35) 18683930
We report an advanced chemoenzymatic strategy for the direct fluorescence detection, proteomic analysis, and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAc residues are selectively labeled with fluorescent or biotin tags using an engineered galactosyltransferase enzyme and [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry. We demonstrate that this approach can be used for direct in-gel detection and mass spectrometric identification of O-GlcNAc proteins, identifying 146 novel glycoproteins from the mammalian brain. Furthermore, we show that the method can be exploited to quantify dynamic changes in cellular O-GlcNAc levels and to image O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins within cells. As such, this strategy enables studies of O-GlcNAc glycosylation that were previously inaccessible and provides a new tool for uncovering the physiological functions of O-GlcNAc.
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