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Jackson EG, Cutolo G, Yang B, Yarravarapu N, Burns MWN, Bineva-Todd G, Roustan C, Thoden JB, Lin-Jones HM, van Kuppevelt TH, Holden HM, Schumann B, Kohler JJ, Woo CM, Pratt MR. 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-GalNAz (4FGalNAz) Is a Metabolic Chemical Reporter of O-GlcNAc Modifications, Highlighting the Notable Substrate Flexibility of O-GlcNAc Transferase. ACS chemical biology 2022 17(1) 34931806
Bio-orthogonal chemistries have revolutionized many fields. For example, metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain a bio-orthogonal functionality, such as azides or alkynes. MCRs are metabolically incorporated into glycoproteins by living systems, and bio-orthogonal reactions can be subsequently employed to install visualization and enrichment tags. Unfortunately, most MCRs are not selective for one class of glycosylation (e.g., N-linked vs O-linked), complicating the types of information that can be gleaned. We and others have successfully created MCRs that are selective for intracellular O-GlcNAc modification by altering the structure of the MCR and thus biasing it to certain metabolic pathways and/or O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Here, we attempt to do the same for the core GalNAc residue of mucin O-linked glycosylation. The most widely applied MCR for mucin O-linked glycosylation, GalNAz, can be enzymatically epimerized at the 4-hydroxyl to give GlcNAz. This results in a mixture of cell-surface and O-GlcNAc labeling. We reasoned that replacing the 4-hydroxyl of GalNAz with a fluorine would lock the stereochemistry of this position in place, causing the MCR to be more selective. After synthesis, we found that 4FGalNAz labels a variety of proteins in mammalian cells and does not perturb endogenous glycosylation pathways unlike 4FGalNAc. However, through subsequent proteomic and biochemical characterization, we found that 4FGalNAz does not widely label cell-surface glycoproteins but instead is primarily a substrate for OGT. Although these results are somewhat unexpected, they once again highlight the large substrate flexibility of OGT, with interesting and important implications for intracellular protein modification by a potential range of abiotic and native monosaccharides.
Species: Homo sapiens
Wong YK, Wang J, Lim TK, Lin Q, Yap CT, Shen HM. O-GlcNAcylation promotes fatty acid synthase activity under nutritional stress as a pro-survival mechanism in cancer cells. Proteomics 2022 22(9) 35083852
Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a specific form of protein glycosylation that targets a wide range of proteins with important functions. O-GlcNAcylation is known to be deregulated in cancer and has been linked to multiple aspects of cancer pathology. Despite its ubiquity and importance, the current understanding of the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the stress response remains limited. In this study, we performed a quantitative chemical proteomics-based open study of the O-GlcNAcome in HeLa cells, and identified 163 differentially-glycosylated proteins under starvation, involving multiple metabolic pathways. Among them, fatty acid metabolism was found to be targeted and subsequent analysis confirmed that fatty acid synthase (FASN) is O-GlcNAcylated. O-GlcNAcylation led to enhanced de novo fatty acid synthesis (FAS) activity, and fatty acids contributed to the cytoprotective effects of O-GlcNAcylation under starvation. Moreover, dual inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation and FASN displayed a strong synergistic effect in vitro in inducing cell death in cancer cells. Together, the results from this study provide novel insights into the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the nutritional stress response and suggest the potential of combining inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation and FAS in cancer therapy.