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Lee BE, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Jeong H, Kim BG, Lee HE, Lee J, Kim HB, Lee SE, Yang YR, Yi EC, Hanover JA, Myung K, Suh PG, Kwon T, Kim JI. O-GlcNAcylation regulates dopamine neuron function, survival and degeneration in Parkinson disease. Brain : a journal of neurology 2020 143(12) 33300544
Abstract:
The dopamine system in the midbrain is essential for volitional movement, action selection, and reward-related learning. Despite its versatile roles, it contains only a small set of neurons in the brainstem. These dopamine neurons are especially susceptible to Parkinson's disease and prematurely degenerate in the course of disease progression, while the discovery of new therapeutic interventions has been disappointingly unsuccessful. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation, an essential post-translational modification in various types of cells, is critical for the physiological function and survival of dopamine neurons. Bidirectional modulation of O-GlcNAcylation importantly regulates dopamine neurons at the molecular, synaptic, cellular, and behavioural levels. Remarkably, genetic and pharmacological upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation mitigates neurodegeneration, synaptic impairments, and motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. These findings provide insights into the functional importance of O-GlcNAcylation in the dopamine system, which may be utilized to protect dopamine neurons against Parkinson's disease pathology.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
BIG2, F1712, VIR, AJM1, RPGP1, UBR4, SCN1A, AGRIN, TITIN, KALRN, STPG3, FXL16, TT23L, PTPRS, GRIK3, SCN2A, DLGP4, OSBL8, PTPRZ, PGBD5, GLSK, GCN1, CE350, PI4KA, RYR2, AGRF2, UBE4A, NRX2A, FRY, SYGP1, OTOGL, AT2B1, ANK3, CA2D1, DPYL2, STXB1, DCTN1, U5S1, GFRA2, GALT1, SEM4D, KIF3C, PLCA, PHB2, NCAM2, GRAK, PURB, IMA3, IMA7, PLD3, FOLH1, FKBP8, STX1A, PSDE, VIAAT, AP1B1, C1QBP, SYT3, HNRH1, SATT, CTND2, SDC4, AP3D1, RGS9, RGS7, CSK22, OX2G, AAKG1, CRYM, PROM1, CNTP1, ENTP2, BCKD, SNG1, NIPS1, NIPS2, SEPT7, AT2A2, DHX9, PI51C, PI42A, ITB5, GPX4, NPTX2, GNAZ, WDR1, S4A4, MTX2, CNTFR, ZFR, CSN3, HCN2, HCN1, CTBP1, BSN, MPP3, NOE1, CBPD, LGMN, COR1A, CYB, COX1, COX2, COX3, HPRT, ATP6, THY1, H3C, LAMC1, NU1M, NU2M, NU4M, NU5M, ATP8, GFAP, MBP, PRIO, ALDOA, KAPCA, AATM, TBA1B, TBA3, KIT, LDHA, G6PI, MDR1B, ENPP1, HS90A, ENPL, KCC4, NFL, NFM, RASN, PGK2, ITB1, PPBT, NUCL, PGK1, ACE, LRC4B, UBB, UBC, EF1A1, IF4A2, GSTM1, 4F2, H10, LAMP1, HS90B, L1CAM, ITA5, KCC2A, ITB2, ITPR1, TCPA, PFKAL, CNTN1, NCAM1, AT1B1, C1QB, RS16, RL7, AT1B2, PSMD3, MAP1B, GLNA, CADH2, INSR, NTRK2, KCNC1, SPTB1, H12, KPCE, LDHB, CN37, DDX3L, KCNA1, KCNA3, AMPE, ASSY, SPTN1, G3P, LAMP2, ENOA, AP2A1, AP2A2, HXK1, GTR1, PTPRA, COF1, GNAO, FAS, LAMA1, NFH, COX41, BIP, HEXB, VIME, MTAP2, MAG, GNA11, GNAQ, MDR1A, ACES, GBRG2, AP1G1, GBRD, EIF3A, CXA1, GRIA1, GRIA2, TY3H, RS2, GBRA2, RL3, BRAF, KCC2B, NP1L1, NCKP1, SNAB, KIF2A, KIF3A, PABP1, GBB4, KCRU, GNA14, KAP3, SC6A1, S6A11, MP2K1, GTR3, LA, RASK, SYWC, KIF1A, HYES, RAB3D, RAB5C, RAB6A, RAB21, NMDZ1, ODPA, RET, FBRL, KCNJ2, CD81, GPM6A, GPM6B, GNL1, DYN1, DYN2, GRIK2, CAP1, ABCA2, PURA, HD, EAA2, H14, H15, H13, ITAV, SYT1, NSF, RB11B, AINX, MYO1B, NEDD4, ALDH2, GRM8, CAZA2, CAPZB, MP2K4, PFKAM, RL6, RL29, RL5, GLRB, DCE1, DCE2, CBR1, GSTM5, ADT1, INPP, CDK5, SAHH, GDIA, VATA, VATE1, GBRB1, RAB7A, ACADL, VA0D1, ADT2, EAA3, KCNJ4, KPYM, RAB2A, PRS6B, PTN5, NCAN, ABCD3, RAB8A, ATPK, ATP5E, UBP5, ATPB, CTBP2, EAA1, WFS1, FUS, NICA, ACTN4, ASM3B, EF2, OPA1, DOCK4, IRPL1, ARPC4, MYPR, PLPP, ACTB, MDGA2, NEUG, RAC3, IF4A1, MEGF8, RAB5B, RAB10, RAB8B, ARP2, ACTZ, CSN2, ARF3, ARL1, CAH10, RAP2B, STX1B, RAB6B, RL27, ARF4, GABT, HNRPK, 1433G, RS7, PP1A, RS8, SMD1, KCAB2, ABI2, RB11A, EF1A2, RS4X, PP2AB, RL18A, ACTA, AP2S1, RL23A, VISL1, H4, GBRA1, VATB2, RAB1A, RAB3C, RAN, RAP1A, RS24, GBB1, GBB2, RS3, RL8, RS27A, RL40, RAC1, RAB3A, HSP7C, CH60, VAMP2, NOE3, GBRB3, VATL, PP1G, 1433Z, GBRB2, KCNA2, KCAB1, CRNL1, DYL1, ACTG, ACTH, KPCG, PP2BA, PP2AA, PHB, CSK2B, ACTC, RACK1, ACTS, KAPCB, TBA4A, TBA1A, TBB4B, KPCB, H31, IMB1, PLXA1, PLXA2, PLXA3, DCC, ITPR3, NCHL1, HNRH2, ELAV1, USP9X, IDHG1, LYAG, AT8A1, TCPH, TCPB, TCPD, TCPE, TCPZ, TCPG, TNIK, WNK1, RL36A, ARF1, ARF5, AP2M1, H32, H33, ADCY5, NPTN, RS3A, AT1B3, DPYL1, ZNT3, GRM1, SHPS1, NEO1, FUMH, M4K4, C1QA, TBB5, PDE4D, PDE1B, NMDE2, SC23A, TERA, C1QC, CTNB1, PLAK, EPHA4, MARK3, ATPA, CHLE, KCND1, KCRB, NF1, CDK18, RAC2, MARK2, PGBM, PTPRG, PYC, KCMA1, PADI2, INF2, TRIO, MDGA1, CTP5A, ITB8, PSA, GRM2, PTCD3, PHAR1, LRFN1, SPP2B, HP1B3, NLRX1, PRC2C, TM38A, VGLU1, BIG3, PLXD1, AGAP2, AAK1, TEN4, CAMKV, DOP2, RMD3, SMU1, MCCB, GPD1L, LIGO2, SRBS2, CDKL5, K22O, VPS51, GRM5, CBAR2, SHAN3, UN13A, SE6L2, KCTD8, KCD16, LRC8B, VP13A, C2C4C, S2551, MRS2, DIRA2, CYFP2, TM1L2, RHG44, MYO1D, RABL6, DJC11, UIMC1, ICAM5, FLOT2, HNRPD, PTPRN, CSK21, KHDR1, IGF1R, CLD11, SPB6, ARHG2, VDAC2, VDAC3, VDAC1, ABCB7, ASTN1, P3C2A, CAC1E, LAMB2, CTNA2, SC6A3, CNTN2, PGCB, NEP, KCNA4, CD166, 5NTD, GSLG1, EWS, AP180, FSCN1, GDIB, GRIK5, GRID1, DDX5, HS105, ITIH3, IL1AP, CD47, KINH, KIF3B, LASP1, MYH10, MOG, NPM, PCBP2, CSPG2, DDX3Y, DLG4, RHOC, DAG1, DDX3X, SYPH, TICN1, NDUA4, NPTX1, NUP62, OMGP, HECAM, AOFA, ARP3B, SURF4, SYN2, CP3AD, H2B1H, GLPK, SDC3, GPDM, H2A2C, H2B2B, GRM7, GRM4, CLH1, K1549, GIT1, PKP4, PPR29, CNTN4, NLGN2, SV2C, THS7A, CE170, UBP7, BRNP2, SCMC3, LIGO3, DGKB, RPRD2, DPP10, S23IP, PPRC1, 2ABA, TNPO3, SIK3, U520, S39AA, TTYH3, XPO1, SPCS, KCRS, CSKI1, NRX3A, BCR, SARM1, PRRT3, TEFF1, RAB35, CA2D2, KCC2D, AT1A3, AT1A2, GNAS1, SDK2, WDFY3, NTRK3, RAD9B, DGLA, KCD12, MTMR5, UBE2O, CAND1, UBP34, RS9, 2ABB, H2B1C, TLN2, CSPG5, 2AAA, NP1L4, MTCH2, OPALI, CYFP1, TBB2A, HUWE1, IGS21, ROBO2, ACTN1, IGSF1, TR143, TPPP, OTUB1, KPBB, PP6R1, MAP6, ELP1, RRAGD, MRCKB, GABR2, CSMD3, EPT1, VAT1L, LRRC7, CAPS1, CYLD, AGRL1, AGRL3, CLAP1, AUXI, DAAM2, MADD, MFN2, NU214, UBE3C, PLXA4, FBX2, KCMF1, CBPM, GSTM7, AGFG2, LRC8A, HPLN4, VAC14, UBP2L, C2C2L, LRRT4, BDH, MK15, CNKR2, TENA, ASTN2, NEGR1, RAP2A, THEM6, SLIK5, SLIK4, SLIK3, SLIK2, NFASC, NRCAM, RHG32, SRGP3, EFTU, VGLU3, ERLN2, ROA3, SV2B, MIRO1, EFR3A, LRRT2, U2AF4, ENPP6, SYAC, FLRT3, CBLN2, LRTM2, HPCL4, COR2B, CMC1, ATLA1, NU107, RB39B, RB39A, ZN526, ANS1B, DLGP2, AHSA1, IPO5, NCEH1, LSAMP, CADM2, NOE2, ODP2, RBGPR, ECHA, SPA2L, SYNC, RL24, DAAM1, DMXL2, RLGPB, CLAP2, VMAT2, ARF2, NDRG4, ENPP4, HSDL1, RAP2C, GEPH, VATH, PMGT2, TTC12, AOFB, LRFN5, PIGT, CTL2, TENR, NLGN3, LRRT3, DYN3, LRC4C, ARHGA, SYFA, SI1L1, LCAP, EXOG, CERS6, SEP11, IKZF4, GP158, CWC22, VPS52, SCAI, ANK2, PDE10, PGM2L, SHFL, MIC60, WDR37, ABI1, SYNPO, T132C, GLT13, NED4L, RPB2, TCRG1, GNAL, H2B1K, H2B1P, H2A1F, H2A1H, H2A1K, OGT1, SYNJ1, SEPT8, MBOA7, PGP, NGEF, PYGB, COPA, MARK4, DOCK3, PLXB1, TXTP, AGRL2, TRHDE, R4RL1, RTN1, HS12A, K319L, DNM1L, AGRG1, PACS1, ABCF3, SDHA, HACD3, AGFG1, PAF1, IPO11, CCM2, MATR3, ATAT, LRRT1, LGI3, RPTOR, COL12, NAC2, THIL, EIF3L, MARE2, HNRPL, K0513, IQEC1, CACB4, SCPDL, BPHL, SNG3, EIF3C, H2AJ, DC1L1, S35A3, AP3M2, MUC18, UBQL1, PSPC1, NUP58, IGSF8, EXOC1, CACB1, CADM4, NUP85, SNP47, ACTY, WASF1, AMPB, MICU1, PSMD2, AT1A1, CDIPT, GD1L1, CC50A, HNRPU, REM2, MPCP, MARK1, CSPG4, SORC3, IPO4, SFPQ, BACH, S12A5, RAB14, SFXN3, ACLY, NDUS1, ITM2C, RMXL1, MIC25, ATPG, DDX1, MLP3A, UBAP2, ACSL6, NDUS2, ERLN1, DLG2, PI42C, IPO9, NDUV1, GRHPR, SRGP2, SRGP1, RAB4B, LRP1, WDR7, BRNP1, SYDC, TBB6, PDK3, TSN2, PDE2A, RPAB3, CSMD1, KCC2G, 2ABD, ATAD3, SFXN5, MYO5A, G37L1, RAP1B, SFXN1, NLGN1, NONO, RRAGC, TIP, MLF2, GAK, CDS2, NDUAA, ETFA, TNPO2, PTPRT, DNJA3, T121B, SF3B1, RIMS1, CNTP4, NTRI, PRP8, COX6C, MGST3, CNTP2, 6PGL, QCR8, NDUB4, RAB5A, GLRX3, AT5F1, S2546, MLP3B, 1433B, RL14, M2OM, UCRI, MIC19, PRPS2, NRX1A, MICU3, ARPC2, TBB2B, ROA0, CENPV, RL11, ILF2, TECR, RN181, BIEA, QCR1, OLA1, RL15, AL1B1, TOM70, MPC2, ODPB, MMS19, MGRN1, HNRPM, SCOT1, DYL2, RM28, RAB1B, LIGO1, RUFY3, MEII1, ATAD1, CUL5, GBRA4, TBB4A, GHC1, IDH3A, PRPS1, U2AF1, RL4, PSD12, SNAA, ATPO, BTBDH, QCR2, ALG2, AP2B1, RPN2, SUSD2, NDUA9, NDUS7, 6PGD, EIF3F, NDUS3, RAB13, XPO7, IPO7, NBEA, SORC2, VPS35, RPGF4, TBB3, XPO2, RTN3, LRBA, SPN90, TRIM2, DYHC1, LRP1B, LGI1, PRAF2, SV2A, SCAM5, NECT1, HYOU1, EXTL1, SORC1, DCLK1, MTOR, MINK1, ZN207, AP3B2, MY18A, RHOA, HPLN1, FAK2, NAGAB, COPG2, KI21A, SHRM3, PLEC, DREB, CMC2, EHD3, PLXB3, ADDA, DNJA2, GRM3, PCLO, SIA7A, ARP10, DCTN5, PLXC1, COPG1, GPC1, UBQL2, FBX6, SRR, AT2B2, CELR2, DEST, ARC1A, KAD1, GBRG1, GUAD, CBLN1, DGKE, VAS1, ADA22, ADA23, PEPL, CAD13, TEN1, TEN2, CUL1, ATRN, GLPK2, PDC6I, PFKAP, PYGM, SUCA, RBMX, GABR1, GSK3B, FPRP, E41L3, BUB3, CARM1, PSD13, CP46A, APC7, NCDN, ITB6, KCND2, NU160, HNRDL, SAE2, VATC1, VPP1, ARI1, CA2D3, SEPT3, AP3B1, STK39, HNRPC, DPP6, E41L1, SUCB1, SEPT5, GRIA4, GRIA3, HOME1
Species: Mus musculus
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Zaro BW, Batt AR, Chuh KN, Navarro MX, Pratt MR. The Small Molecule 2-Azido-2-deoxy-glucose Is a Metabolic Chemical Reporter of O-GlcNAc Modifications in Mammalian Cells, Revealing an Unexpected Promiscuity of O-GlcNAc Transferase. ACS chemical biology 2017 12(3) 28135057
Abstract:
Glycans can be directly labeled using unnatural monosaccharide analogs, termed metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs). These compounds enable the secondary visualization and identification of glycoproteins by taking advantage of bioorthogonal reactions. Most widely used MCRs have azides or alkynes at the 2-N-acetyl position but are not selective for one class of glycoprotein over others. To address this limitation, we are exploring additional MCRs that have bioorthogonal functionality at other positions. Here, we report the characterization of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucose (2AzGlc). We find that 2AzGlc selectively labels intracellular O-GlcNAc modifications, which further supports a somewhat unexpected, structural flexibility in this pathway. In contrast to the endogenous modification N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), we find that 2AzGlc is not dynamically removed from protein substrates and that treatment with higher concentrations of per-acetylated 2AzGlc is toxic to cells. Finally, we demonstrate that this toxicity is an inherent property of the small-molecule, as removal of the 6-acetyl-group renders the corresponding reporter nontoxic but still results in protein labeling.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A2A5R8, A2A6U3, A2AF81, A2AG39, A2AIW9, A2AJ72, A2AJI1, A2AKV2, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AUR3, LAS1L, TRM1L, A5A4Y9, A6PWC3, B0QZF8, B1AU76, UPP, B7ZC19, B7ZP47, B8JJC1, D3YWF6, D3YWK1, D3YWS3, D3YYP4, E9PX53, E9Q066, I2BP2, E9Q4Q2, E9Q5L7, E9Q7W0, E9QP59, F8WGW3, G3UX26, G3UYZ0, G3UZ44, G3X972, H3BKW0, H7BWX9, GTPB1, AIP, ATOX1, HDAC1, GSH0, DHX15, IKBE, AKAP2, SLK, IMPCT, IF6, ACOT1, NMT1, DHB12, SRPK1, ZN326, KLC1, RPP30, IDHC, CASP8, GCR, TYSY, RIR1, S10AA, LEG1, G3P, TPIS, PRDX3, CBX3, TISD, CATA, IMDH2, NFKB1, MAP4, CEBPB, CDK4, FKBP4, HMGB2, KAP3, MP2K1, RANG, PTN11, FBRL, PTN12, FMR1, HMGCL, DYN1, CAP1, STAT1, STAT3, PURA, ALD2, SIPA1, PURA2, GSHR, FOSL2, FOSL1, GSTM5, PCY1A, VATA, HDGF, UBP10, RHOX5, HMGA2, CCHL, NUB1, FAF1, ZNRD2, TB182, PCBP1, ARL1, PFD3, TCTP, HMGB1, DYL1, UB2L3, HDAC2, ELAV1, 4EBP2, PYRG1, TCPB, SPTC2, PSME2, BOP1, WBP2, XDH, HMMR, E2AK2, CO6A1, FABP5, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, RM10, Q3TFP0, GUAA, FUBP2, TRADD, CTU2, Q3U4W8, SNX27, BABA1, EDC4, COBL1, SKAP2, ARH40, CSTOS, LRRF1, ZMAT1, Q45VK5, JIP4, MDC1, Q5SUW3, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, SPB6, CAPR1, PAPS1, TS101, PA1B2, FNTA, IGBP1, FSCN1, FXR1, CBX5, HS105, RAI1, MELK, FOXC2, DBNL, CYTB, NDRG1, RALY, GPDM, PUR2, RAB3I, F120A, NOP58, Q6DFZ1, TPM4, Q6NXL1, Q6NZD2, TNPO3, SMHD1, UGGG1, UBXN7, TXLNA, DC1L2, KI18B, JUPI2, LARP1, CAND2, ACAP2, HNRPQ, SPAG7, ATX2L, MAP6, ELP1, PJA2, PGRC2, KCMF1, Q80VB6, FA98B, WDTC1, CPPED, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, ATG4B, Q8BGJ5, FTO, Q8BH80, PRUN1, AHSA1, RCC2, NCEH1, LSS, FBLN3, PPR18, SRRM2, MSRB3, PPME1, RL1D1, TBCD4, NHLC2, MAP1S, TLK1, CND2, RAE1L, SEP10, ZFP57, UBA6, UBA3, STON1, PPM1F, GNL3, Q8CIH9, HMCS1, Q8K0C7, PDXK, ANGE2, LRC41, SDE2, DNM1L, ANLN, MATR3, CBR3, MEPCE, ERF3A, DC1L1, SPART, TDIF2, HEXI1, SNP47, UBP15, MAVS, UBXN4, ACSF2, MICU1, CBWD1, BACH, ISOC1, IPYR2, CSDE1, PIP30, GCSH, Q91X76, DUS3L, BAG2, KCC1A, TTC1, HNRLL, RIN1, PP6R3, MARC2, DBR1, ATAD3, PSIP1, NXF1, NONO, PLST, RRAGC, VMA5A, TARA, DDAH2, TADA1, GRPE1, ABD12, NU155, OGFR, NPM3, GLOD4, COPRS, DPOE4, MIEN1, TRAP1, VATG1, CHSP1, OCAD1, RANB3, MFR1L, NDUF7, TBC15, PPIL4, MPPB, CYBP, ZCHC8, CD37L, MMS19, ARPIN, HNRPM, NXP20, SPF27, TOE1, Q9D4G5, ATAD1, CF226, IPYR, ORN, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, EIF3F, IFG15, LIMA1, NEK7, RTN3, STK3, NUP50, SYSM, HSPB8, BAG3, CUL3, RABX5, CAF1A, DREB, TOM40, DNJC7, NFU1, FBX6, NUBP1, DEST, TEBP, ACOT9, NFKB2, KAD2, SKP1, PDC6I, VAPA, CARM1, RAD9A, IF2G, SAE2, TRIP6, MBD2, HNRPF
Species: Mus musculus
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Chuh KN, Batt AR, Zaro BW, Darabedian N, Marotta NP, Brennan CK, Amirhekmat A, Pratt MR. The New Chemical Reporter 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc Reveals O-GlcNAc Modification of the Apoptotic Caspases That Can Block the Cleavage/Activation of Caspase-8. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017 139(23) 28528544
Abstract:
O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is required for survival in mammalian cells. Genetic and biochemical experiments have found that increased modification inhibits apoptosis in tissues and cell culture and that lowering O-GlcNAcylation induces cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms by which O-GlcNAcylation might inhibit apoptosis are still being elucidated. Here, we first synthesize a new metabolic chemical reporter, 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc (6AlkGlcNAc), for the identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Subsequent characterization of 6AlkGlcNAc shows that this probe is selectively incorporated into O-GlcNAcylated proteins over cell-surface glycoproteins. Using this probe, we discover that the apoptotic caspases are O-GlcNAcylated, which we confirmed using other techniques, raising the possibility that the modification affects their biochemistry. We then demonstrate that changes in the global levels of O-GlcNAcylation result in a converse change in the kinetics of caspase-8 activation during apoptosis. Finally, we show that caspase-8 is modified at residues that can block its cleavage/activation. Our results provide the first evidence that the caspases may be directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation as a potential antiapoptotic mechanism.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A2A4A6, A2A5R8, GPTC8, SPD2B, A2ACG7, A2AFQ9, A2AFW6, A2AG46, CKAP5, A2AH75, A2AJ72, MA7D1, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AMY5, TPX2, PPIG, LAS1L, A5A4Y9, A6PWC3, A6PWK7, UBP36, B1AT03, B1AT82, B1AU75, B2RQG2, OTUD4, B7ZCP4, B7ZP47, D3YUW8, D3YWF6, D3YWK1, D3YX62, SAFB1, D3YXM7, D3YZ06, D3YZP6, D3Z069, D3Z158, D3Z3F8, D3Z6W2, E0CYM1, E9PUH7, E9PVM7, E9PWG6, E9PWV3, E9PWW9, E9PY48, E9PYT3, E9PZM7, E9Q066, E9Q2X6, E9Q3G8, E9Q450, E9Q4K7, E9Q4Q2, KIF23, BD1L1, NUMA1, E9Q7M2, E9Q986, E9Q9E1, E9Q9H2, E9QKG3, E9QKG6, E9QKZ2, E9QLA5, E9QP49, E9QP59, E9QPI5, F2Z3X7, F6S5I0, F7AA26, F7BQE4, FARP1, F8VQ93, F8VQC7, F8VQE9, F8VQK5, F8WI30, G3UZ44, G3UZX6, G3X8R0, G3X8Y3, G3X928, G3X963, G3X972, G3X9V0, G5E896, G5E8E1, H3BJU7, H3BK31, H3BKK2, H7BX26, I1E4X0, I7HIK9, J3QNW0, DPYL2, GTPB1, AKAP1, TCOF, AIP, HDAC1, RL21, GSH0, KIF1C, DHX15, SC6A6, IF6, ILK, ATX2, NMT1, E41L2, DHB12, SRPK1, ZN326, ZFR, PARG, SPD2A, SP1, CASP8, HPRT, LDHA, G6PI, TYSY, RIR1, GNAI2, ITB1, 4F2, H2B1F, MAP1B, HMOX1, LEG1, G3P, KS6A3, COF1, GNAO, IFRD1, VIME, TPM3, UBL4A, CBX3, CXA1, CATA, IMDH2, IL1RA, MCM3, CDK4, NKTR, FKBP4, CBX2, HMGB2, AIMP1, KAP3, MP2K1, SYWC, KIF4, NEDD1, DPOLA, RANG, UBP4, PTN11, RAB18, PTN1, PTN12, LDLR, DNLI1, CAP1, STAT3, STA5B, PURA, ALD2, RAGP1, NEDD4, STT3A, ALDH2, GSHR, GFPT1, PCY1A, MCM4, ICAL, PLCB3, CDN2A, HDGF, UBP10, KPYM, CCHL, IDHP, DDX6, GOGA3, COX17, ACTN4, GCP3, TB182, EIF3E, ABCE1, PFD3, HNRPK, 1433E, RAP1A, RS25, TCTP, DNJA1, HMGB1, IF5A1, RS17, RS12, UB2L3, HXD13, HDAC2, ELAV1, TP53B, CASP3, PYRG1, TCPB, STIM2, SRSF3, CSRP2, SPTC2, BOP1, SMAD4, M4K4, HNRL2, MARK3, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, PEPD, CDCA2, Q3TFP0, GUAA, PDE12, Q3TL72, PRC2C, NOL9, FUBP2, TRADD, CTU2, ZN865, Q3U4W8, Q3UG37, NAT9, NOL8, Q3UJQ9, SC31A, NCBP1, LRRF1, DDX17, LRC47, JIP4, EHMT1, CA050, AAPK1, NSRP1, Q5RL57, Q5SQB0, TENS3, PUR4, Q5UE59, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, GRB10, HELLS, SPB6, RIPK1, CAPR1, ASNS, LAP2A, CDC37, TS101, SNTB2, FNTA, BAP31, PLPP1, FSCN1, FXR1, DDX5, ATRX, HS105, DDX3Y, DDX3X, TGFI1, DBNL, SH3G1, CYTB, SMAD2, NDRG1, ZYX, SQSTM, TPP2, ZN512, LAR4B, F120A, CNDG2, NOP58, LTV1, Q6NV52, Q6NXL1, Q6NZD2, ANKL2, Q6P5B5, XPO1, KIF15, FHOD1, TXLNA, PTN23, JUPI2, NUDC1, TACC1, UBE2O, LARP1, ACAP2, 2AAA, MTCH2, ZN503, CYFP1, HNRPQ, SPAG7, DEK, ACTN1, ATX2L, CKP2L, ZN516, ERBIN, SEPT9, PGRC2, Q80VB6, UBP2L, PI42B, ZN598, SAFB2, Q80ZX0, DLG1, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, Q8BGJ5, FTO, TIPRL, Q8BH80, MISSL, ERC6L, CARF, PRUN1, NUP93, FBX30, HBAP1, AHSA1, RCC2, IPO5, SYLC, CKAP4, MAP11, PALM2, CPNE3, SENP7, CSN7B, NSD2, DPP9, Q8BWW3, KANK2, PXK, PIGT, ITPK1, NHLC2, MAP1S, GWL, PKHH2, CND2, THOP1, SEP11, SKA3, CA198, SEP10, AROS, UBA6, LIPB1, SMAG1, Q8CCM0, ZN276, NAA30, SNX8, SYEP, OGT1, GNL3, PDLI5, FERM2, AGO2, HMCS1, AMERL, SCNM1, DNM1L, NEK9, ANLN, EDC3, MATR3, CHAP1, MEPCE, ERF3A, CC137, TDIF2, VPS18, RFC3, MCMBP, HEXI1, LUZP1, SNP47, TMX1, MAVS, UBXN4, Q8VCQ8, ACSF2, PARN, VIGLN, PSMD2, NAA40, F1142, CBWD1, PAXI, SFPQ, CPIN1, RAB14, IPYR2, PUS7, CSDE1, PIP30, RABE2, CISD1, Q91X76, DUS3L, KCC1A, TTC1, SRGP2, SNX18, RISC, HNRLL, Q921K2, PP6R3, LRC59, UBXN1, DBR1, KCC2G, Q924B0, WAC, SMC6, PAWR, SIAS, STML2, PSIP1, NXF1, PDXD1, NONO, PLST, RRAGC, VMA5A, MAOM, DCTN2, ZN281, CT2NL, GRPE1, ABD12, RTN4, NU155, OGFR, NPM3, NOP16, GLOD4, Q9CQ43, MTAP, IFM3, CYB5B, PAF15, PSMD9, WIPI3, SKA2, VATG1, CHSP1, LRC40, RANB3, SMC1A, MFR1L, ARHGP, DDX47, TBC15, PPIL4, MPPB, CYBP, TECR, PAIRB, ZCHC8, SPCS2, Q9CZP3, CD37L, SSBP3, MMS19, MGRN1, ARPIN, HNRPM, SYRC, MCES, Q9D4G5, ATAD1, F162A, TRIR, IPYR, PHF10, ARFG3, ORN, BOLA1, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, XRN2, GNAI3, PUR6, RAI14, SENP3, ARFG1, SIL1, VPS35, DGCR8, SYCC, ELP4, LIMA1, XPO2, RBP2, RTN3, PALLD, TMOD3, STK3, COPB, NUP50, DDX21, SH3L1, DDX20, MBNL1, BAG3, GKAP1, ZN207, TRXR1, PPCE, CAF1A, LIMD1, NDRG3, DNJC7, NFU1, COPG1, NUBP1, SMAP, DEST, ACOT9, PR40A, FOXO1, FIZ1, NFKB2, KAD2, AKA12, PRKRA, PDC6I, CHIP, COR1C, VAPA, NDKM, E41L3, TAGL2, CARM1, MTNB, BCL10, IF2G, P5CS, COG1, MD2L1, EIF3G, SAE2, ILF3, TRIP6, USO1, BAZ1B, HNRPF, KEAP1
Species: Mus musculus
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Chuh KN, Zaro BW, Piller F, Piller V, Pratt MR. Changes in metabolic chemical reporter structure yield a selective probe of O-GlcNAc modification. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2014 136(35) 25153642
Abstract:
Metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain bioorthogonal functionalities and enable the direct visualization and identification of glycoproteins from living cells. Each MCR was initially thought to report on specific types of glycosylation. We and others have demonstrated that several MCRs are metabolically transformed and enter multiple glycosylation pathways. Therefore, the development of selective MCRs remains a key unmet goal. We demonstrate here that 6-azido-6-deoxy-N-acetyl-glucosamine (6AzGlcNAc) is a specific MCR for O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Biochemical analysis and comparative proteomics with 6AzGlcNAc, N-azidoacetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAz), and N-azidoacetyl-galactosamine (GalNAz) revealed that 6AzGlcNAc exclusively labels intracellular proteins, while GlcNAz and GalNAz are incorporated into a combination of intracellular and extracellular/lumenal glycoproteins. Notably, 6AzGlcNAc cannot be biosynthetically transformed into the corresponding UDP sugar-donor by the canonical salvage-pathway that requires phosphorylation at the 6-hydroxyl. In vitro experiments showed that 6AzGlcNAc can bypass this roadblock through direct phosphorylation of its 1-hydroxyl by the enzyme phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (AGM1). Taken together, 6AzGlcNAc enables the specific analysis of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and these results suggest that specific MCRs for other types of glycosylation can be developed. Additionally, our data demonstrate that cells are equipped with a somewhat unappreciated metabolic flexibility with important implications for the biosynthesis of natural and unnatural carbohydrates.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A1BN54, A2A4Z1, A2A6U3, A2AFJ1, A2AG83, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AMY5, LAS1L, B1AU75, OTUD4, B7FAU9, B7ZP47, D3YUC9, D3YVJ7, SAFB1, D3Z4W3, E9PVC5, E9PZM7, E9Q066, E9Q2X6, E9Q310, E9Q5L7, E9Q7M2, E9Q986, F6T2Z7, G3UZ44, G3UZI2, G3X8Q0, G3X8Y3, G3X928, G3X972, G3X9V0, G5E8E1, H3BKK2, J3JS94, CAN2, DPYL2, AIP, HDAC1, MP2K3, GSH0, DHX15, ZW10, AKAP2, SLK, NMT1, E41L2, SRPK1, PARG, SPD2A, LDHA, ANXA2, RIR1, ANXA1, LMNB1, LEG1, G3P, TPIS, COF1, FAS, CBX3, BCAT1, MCM3, MAP4, FKBP4, HMGB2, AIMP1, MP2K1, SYWC, RANG, UBP4, PTN11, RAB5C, DNLI1, CAP1, STAT3, EPS15, PURA, MSH2, ALD2, PURA2, NEDD4, GFPT1, PCY1A, ICAL, HDGF, UBP10, ACTN4, EF2, TB182, SF3B6, PCBP1, PSME3, PFD3, HNRPK, MTPN, DNJA1, SUMO1, IF5A1, UB2L3, 1433T, HDAC2, ELAV1, 4EBP2, PYRG1, TCPB, BOP1, DAB2, XDH, UBA1, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, PSA, Q3TFP0, GUAA, METK2, FA98A, Q3TT92, UAP1L, NOL9, FUBP2, Q3U4W8, YRDC, NOL8, COBL1, CSTOS, LRRF1, Q3V3Y9, DDX17, MDC1, TENS3, Q5UE59, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, SPB6, CAPR1, PAPS1, ASNS, LAP2B, LAP2A, PPM1G, CDC37, FXR1, HS105, PCBP2, KPCI, DDX3X, TSN, DBNL, CYTB, ZYX, RALY, SQSTM, TPP2, PUR2, PEAK1, NOP58, TPM4, LTV1, ZC11A, Q6P5B5, SMHD1, GGA2, TXLNA, JUPI2, UBE2O, LARP1, 2AAA, MTCH2, DEK, MBB1A, ATX2L, OTUB1, MAP6, AFTIN, FLNB, PI42B, ZN598, SAFB2, GRWD1, CPPED, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, Q8BGJ5, SYAC, RUFY1, PRUN1, CTF18, AHSA1, RCC2, IPO5, CKAP4, PPR18, HEAT3, SRRM2, HAT1, MAP1S, TLK1, CND2, THOP1, SEP11, TBL3, SEP10, UBA6, SYEP, GNL3, PDLI5, HMCS1, PKHO2, NEK9, ANLN, MATR3, CBR3, MEPCE, ERF3A, SPART, TDIF2, MCMBP, UBP15, MAVS, Q8VCQ8, PSMD2, FLNC, CPIN1, ACLY, MK67I, RINI, PUS7, CSDE1, DUS3L, KCC1A, TTC1, TADBP, RIN1, NONO, RRAGC, SERB, UBQL4, OGFR, NPM3, GLOD4, MTAP, CYB5B, PSMD9, CHSP1, OCAD1, RANB3, MFR1L, TBC15, CYBP, ZCHC8, GARS, CD37L, UB2V1, HNRPM, Q9D4G5, NOP56, IPYR, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, XRN2, MYPT1, PUR6, WDR4, SENP3, LIMA1, ANM1, NUP50, DDX20, IQGA1, MBNL1, ELOV1, DCLK1, BAG3, PPCE, CAF1A, LIMD1, DREB, TOM40, DEST, FOXO1, NFKB2, PDC6I, COR1C, TAGL2, CARM1, MTNB, GBP2, P5CS, EIF3G, SAE2, USO1, HNRPF, KEAP1
Species: Mus musculus
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