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Clark PM, Dweck JF, Mason DE, Hart CR, Buck SB, Peters EC, Agnew BJ, Hsieh-Wilson LC. Direct in-gel fluorescence detection and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008 130(35) 18683930
We report an advanced chemoenzymatic strategy for the direct fluorescence detection, proteomic analysis, and cellular imaging of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. O-GlcNAc residues are selectively labeled with fluorescent or biotin tags using an engineered galactosyltransferase enzyme and [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry. We demonstrate that this approach can be used for direct in-gel detection and mass spectrometric identification of O-GlcNAc proteins, identifying 146 novel glycoproteins from the mammalian brain. Furthermore, we show that the method can be exploited to quantify dynamic changes in cellular O-GlcNAc levels and to image O-GlcNAc-glycosylated proteins within cells. As such, this strategy enables studies of O-GlcNAc glycosylation that were previously inaccessible and provides a new tool for uncovering the physiological functions of O-GlcNAc.
Ding M, Vandré DD. High molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins contain O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine. The Journal of biological chemistry 1996 271(21) 8647865
We have examined the post-translational modification of high molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) have shown that MAP1, MAP2, and MAP4 are glycosylated. The presence of carbohydrate residues on these proteins was indicated by labeling with biotin hydrazide following periodate oxidation, a specific and well established method for detecting saccharide moieties on proteins. Both MAP2 and MAP4 were also labeled in vitro by UDP-[3H]galactose in the presence of galactosyltransferase. Labeling by galactosyltransferase indicated that MAP2 and MAP4 contained terminal nonreducing GlcNAc residues, and they appeared to be O-linked to the proteins as shown by their sensitivity to beta-elimination. Chromatographic analysis showed that the GlcNAc residues were directly linked to the proteins as monosaccharides. Thus, we have added MAP2 and MAP4 to the list of intracellular O-GlcNAc-modified proteins, which includes other cytoskeletal proteins such as cytokeratins 8, 13, and 18 and neurofilament proteins NF-L and NF-M. We further characterized the O-GlcNAc modification of MAP2, and stoichiometric analysis indicated that nearly 10% of the MAP2 isolated from rat brain is modified by O-GlcNAc. However, this estimate is thought to reflect the minimal level of O-GlcNAc modification present on MAP2. We have also shown that both the O-GlcNAc and biotin hydrazide-reactive carbohydrate moieties are located on the projection domain of MAP2. Three O-GlcNAc-containing peaks were observed following fast protein liquid chromatography of a tryptic digest of MAP2, suggesting that multiple modification sites exist. The specific modification sites and functional significance of the O-GlcNAc glycosylation on the high Mr MAPs remain to be determined.
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