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Lin CH, Liao CC, Chen MY, Chou TY. Feedback Regulation of O-GlcNAc Transferase through Translation Control to Maintain Intracellular O-GlcNAc Homeostasis. International journal of molecular sciences 2021 22(7) 33801653
Abstract:
Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification involving the attachment of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to the hydroxyl groups of Ser/Thr residues on numerous nucleocytoplasmic proteins. Two enzymes are responsible for O-GlcNAc cycling on substrate proteins: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition while O-GlcNAcase (OGA) helps the removal of GlcNAc. O-GlcNAcylation modifies protein functions; therefore, dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation affects cell physiology and contributes to pathogenesis. To maintain homeostasis of cellular O-GlcNAcylation, there exists feedback regulation of OGT and OGA expression responding to fluctuations of O-GlcNAc levels; yet, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. In this study, we investigated the O-GlcNAc-feedback regulation of OGT and OGA expression in lung cancer cells. Results suggest that, upon alterations in O-GlcNAcylation, the regulation of OGA expression occurs at the mRNA level and likely involves epigenetic mechanisms, while modulation of OGT expression is through translation control. Further analyses revealed that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) contributes to the downregulation of OGT induced by hyper-O-GlcNAcylation; the S5A/S6A O-GlcNAcylation-site mutant of 4E-BP1 cannot support this regulation, suggesting an important role of O-GlcNAcylation. The results provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms through which cells may fine-tune intracellular O-GlcNAc levels to maintain homeostasis.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
4EBP1
Species: Homo sapiens
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Joiner CM, Levine ZG, Aonbangkhen C, Woo CM, Walker S. Aspartate Residues Far from the Active Site Drive O-GlcNAc Transferase Substrate Selection. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2019 141(33) 31373491
Abstract:
O-GlcNAc is an abundant post-translational modification found on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in all metazoans. This modification regulates a wide variety of cellular processes, and elevated O-GlcNAc levels have been implicated in cancer progression. A single essential enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), is responsible for all nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAcylation. Understanding how this enzyme chooses its substrates is critical for understanding, and potentially manipulating, its functions. Here we use protein microarray technology and proteome-wide glycosylation profiling to show that conserved aspartate residues in the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) lumen of OGT drive substrate selection. Changing these residues to alanines alters substrate selectivity and unexpectedly increases rates of protein glycosylation. Our findings support a model where sites of glycosylation for many OGT substrates are determined by TPR domain contacts to substrate side chains five to fifteen residues C-terminal to the glycosite. In addition to guiding design of inhibitors that target OGT's TPR domain, this information will inform efforts to engineer substrates to explore biological functions.
Species: Homo sapiens
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Hahne H, Sobotzki N, Nyberg T, Helm D, Borodkin VS, van Aalten DM, Agnew B, Kuster B. Proteome wide purification and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins using click chemistry and mass spectrometry. Journal of proteome research 2013 12(2) 23301498
Abstract:
The post-translational modification of proteins with N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes and associated with a number of chronic diseases. Despite its emerging biological significance, the systematic identification of O-GlcNAc proteins is still challenging. In the present study, we demonstrate a significantly improved O-GlcNAc protein enrichment procedure, which exploits metabolic labeling of cells by azide-modified GlcNAc and copper-mediated Click chemistry for purification of modified proteins on an alkyne-resin. On-resin proteolysis using trypsin followed by LC-MS/MS afforded the identification of around 1500 O-GlcNAc proteins from a single cell line. Subsequent elution of covalently resin bound O-GlcNAc peptides using selective β-elimination enabled the identification of 185 O-GlcNAc modification sites on 80 proteins. To demonstrate the practical utility of the developed approach, we studied the global effects of the O-GlcNAcase inhibitor GlcNAcstatin G on the level of O-GlcNAc modification of cellular proteins. About 200 proteins including several key players involved in the hexosamine signaling pathway showed significantly increased O-GlcNAcylation levels in response to the drug, which further strengthens the link of O-GlcNAc protein modification to cellular nutrient sensing and response.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
UBA6, SHOT1, MEX3A, TPC13, CNOT1, PGP, RIMC1, SMHD1, CC85C, I4E1B, ZBBX, B2R8K8, B2RB32, B3KNS4, B3KUR4, B4DF70, B4DIH0, B4DIR9, B4DTN6, B8XCX8, DX39A, BACH, GTPB1, SMAP, AP3B1, PSD12, PSMD9, ATOX1, PGRC1, SPT5H, TAF4, DFFA, CLIC1, EIF3F, WASL, IPO5, EF2K, PLOD2, MEIS1, PSDE, IMA4, BCL9, SDCB1, NOP56, IMA3, ARI1A, UBFD1, CCS, DVL2, KMT2D, ANM5, TNPO2, GEMI2, HAT1, MYPT1, GAK, XPO1, ZN609, SC16A, SR140, PUR4, NKRF, ZN185, CASC3, OGT1, PMM2, HMGB3, PPM1G, SHIP2, NVL, NUP42, R113A, KDM6A, DHX15, MCES, RRP8, SERA, DC1L2, ZW10, M3K7, RIPK2, WDR62, TXNL1, IF4G3, E41L2, FOXO3, DENR, XPOT, BUB3, ACTN4, HTSF1, SGTA, SYNC, LANC1, DHX16, ZNRD2, KPRB, AQR, GANP, HNRPQ, BUB1B, DIAP1, PLIN3, ANM3, CTND1, EIF1B, USO1, IF2P, NBN, SRGP2, N4BP1, ROCK2, CLAP2, CPNE3, BRE1B, ZC11A, CLU, T22D2, ANR17, GGCT, HMMR, VATG1, FLNB, NCOR1, SPAG7, PR40A, GGYF1, PSIP1, NDUS3, SRS10, KHDR3, SF3B1, CSDE1, PRKRA, KS6A5, NPM3, LYPA1, U520, TIPRL, OFD1, WDHD1, CD123, EIF3G, PSD10, SPF27, CIAO1, RMP, TOX4, SC24D, ST65G, UBXN7, PLPHP, NFAT5, SOGA1, UBP19, WDR47, SC31A, HEXI1, UBR5, SCAF4, UBE4B, ELP1, ZRAB2, KIF4A, VAPB, SNAPN, 6PGL, SMC2, IPO7, AGM1, ZFYV9, SVIL, BAG4, AHSA1, PARN, PSMG1, SC24A, SC24B, AGRL2, TYDP2, PCNT, YETS4, STABP, ASML, EYA4, CEP43, HS74L, WIZ, STAU1, BAG2, BAG3, BPNT1, ECD, MBD3, BCL10, MOC2B, TOM40, CHK2, GSHR, PNPH, HPRT, ADA, CYTB, OAT, KITH, CPNS1, P53, HSPB1, TYSY, RPN1, RLA1, JUN, LA, NPM, NFL, NFM, ANXA2, SYEP, HS90A, HNRPC, SP1, 4F2, HS90B, ASNS, VIME, GSTP1, LEG1, HMGB1, UCHL1, LKHA4, H2A1, UBC, GLI2, ODP2, LAMP1, G6PD, ADHX, CDK4, SRF, PCNA, HARS1, ADT3, IMDH2, ACTN1, PEPD, XRCC5, LAMP2, RINI, EF2, PLST, ACPH, KAP2, CD99, GLU2B, AK1A1, KPYM, PO2F1, SYDC, ALDR, ERF3A, GNS, ZEP1, DESP, CREB1, GCFC2, UBF1, ATF7, CAN2, PYRG1, TCPA, SON, NELFE, ATF1, NFKB1, ICAL, IMDH1, GSTM3, FLNA, COMT, FBRL, PUR2, PUR6, UBA1, ENPP1, CBL, SP100, NFYA, SAHH, COF1, TENA, THTM, RS12, DNJB1, PSA4, DNMT1, RAE2, PTBP1, SYTC, 1433T, RFA1, APEX1, PYR1, MAP4, CALX, PSA5, NDUS1, TPP2, SHC1, TKT, PML, MARCS, PRDX6, PRDX5, PRDX3, KCY, 2AAA, 2AAB, CDC27, NMT1, SDHA, GDIA, METK2, DNJA1, AKT1, PUR9, HNRH1, S10AB, ARRB2, DCTD, TF2H1, KINH, CSTF2, DUT, TTK, PROF2, CAH8, RFC4, RFC2, HXD13, MYH9, MYH10, ADDA, BASI, NU214, DEK, MYH11, PPM1A, PRS7, ARL3, MP2K2, RL4, 8ODP, NUP62, ZEB1, TAGL2, COIL, VATA, GRP75, TXLNA, STAT3, PEX19, RFC5, RFC3, IF2G, NAA10, KDM5C, CS