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Zaro BW, Batt AR, Chuh KN, Navarro MX, Pratt MR. The Small Molecule 2-Azido-2-deoxy-glucose Is a Metabolic Chemical Reporter of O-GlcNAc Modifications in Mammalian Cells, Revealing an Unexpected Promiscuity of O-GlcNAc Transferase. ACS chemical biology 2017 12(3) 28135057
Abstract:
Glycans can be directly labeled using unnatural monosaccharide analogs, termed metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs). These compounds enable the secondary visualization and identification of glycoproteins by taking advantage of bioorthogonal reactions. Most widely used MCRs have azides or alkynes at the 2-N-acetyl position but are not selective for one class of glycoprotein over others. To address this limitation, we are exploring additional MCRs that have bioorthogonal functionality at other positions. Here, we report the characterization of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucose (2AzGlc). We find that 2AzGlc selectively labels intracellular O-GlcNAc modifications, which further supports a somewhat unexpected, structural flexibility in this pathway. In contrast to the endogenous modification N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc), we find that 2AzGlc is not dynamically removed from protein substrates and that treatment with higher concentrations of per-acetylated 2AzGlc is toxic to cells. Finally, we demonstrate that this toxicity is an inherent property of the small-molecule, as removal of the 6-acetyl-group renders the corresponding reporter nontoxic but still results in protein labeling.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A2A5R8, A2A6U3, A2AF81, A2AG39, A2AIW9, A2AJ72, A2AJI1, A2AKV2, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AUR3, LAS1L, TRM1L, A5A4Y9, A6PWC3, B0QZF8, B1AU76, UPP, B7ZC19, B7ZP47, B8JJC1, D3YWF6, D3YWK1, D3YWS3, D3YYP4, E9PX53, E9Q066, I2BP2, E9Q4Q2, E9Q5L7, E9Q7W0, E9QP59, F8WGW3, G3UX26, G3UYZ0, G3UZ44, G3X972, H3BKW0, H7BWX9, GTPB1, AIP, ATOX1, HDAC1, GSH0, DHX15, IKBE, AKAP2, SLK, IMPCT, IF6, ACOT1, NMT1, DHB12, SRPK1, ZN326, KLC1, RPP30, IDHC, CASP8, GCR, TYSY, RIR1, S10AA, LEG1, G3P, TPIS, PRDX3, CBX3, TISD, CATA, IMDH2, NFKB1, MAP4, CEBPB, CDK4, FKBP4, HMGB2, KAP3, MP2K1, RANG, PTN11, FBRL, PTN12, FMR1, HMGCL, DYN1, CAP1, STAT1, STAT3, PURA, ALD2, SIPA1, PURA2, GSHR, FOSL2, FOSL1, GSTM5, PCY1A, VATA, HDGF, UBP10, RHOX5, HMGA2, CCHL, NUB1, FAF1, ZNRD2, TB182, PCBP1, ARL1, PFD3, TCTP, HMGB1, DYL1, UB2L3, HDAC2, ELAV1, 4EBP2, PYRG1, TCPB, SPTC2, PSME2, BOP1, WBP2, XDH, HMMR, E2AK2, CO6A1, FABP5, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, RM10, Q3TFP0, GUAA, FUBP2, TRADD, CTU2, Q3U4W8, SNX27, BABA1, EDC4, COBL1, SKAP2, ARH40, CSTOS, LRRF1, ZMAT1, Q45VK5, JIP4, MDC1, Q5SUW3, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, SPB6, CAPR1, PAPS1, TS101, PA1B2, FNTA, IGBP1, FSCN1, FXR1, CBX5, HS105, RAI1, MELK, FOXC2, DBNL, CYTB, NDRG1, RALY, GPDM, PUR2, RAB3I, F120A, NOP58, Q6DFZ1, TPM4, Q6NXL1, Q6NZD2, TNPO3, SMHD1, UGGG1, UBXN7, TXLNA, DC1L2, KI18B, JUPI2, LARP1, CAND2, ACAP2, HNRPQ, SPAG7, ATX2L, MAP6, ELP1, PJA2, PGRC2, KCMF1, Q80VB6, FA98B, WDTC1, CPPED, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, ATG4B, FTO, Q8BH80, PRUN1, AHSA1, RCC2, NCEH1, LSS, FBLN3, PPR18, SRRM2, MSRB3, PPME1, RL1D1, TBCD4, NHLC2, MAP1S, TLK1, CND2, RAE1L, SEP10, ZFP57, UBA6, UBA3, STON1, PPM1F, GNL3, PUR1, HMCS1, Q8K0C7, PDXK, ANGE2, LRC41, SDE2, DNM1L, ANLN, MATR3, CBR3, MEPCE, ERF3A, DC1L1, SPART, TDIF2, HEXI1, SNP47, UBP15, MAVS, UBXN4, ACSF2, MICU1, ZNG1, BACH, ISOC1, IPYR2, CSDE1, PIP30, GCSH, Q91X76, DUS3L, BAG2, KCC1A, TTC1, HNRLL, RIN1, PP6R3, MARC2, DBR1, ATAD3, PSIP1, NXF1, NONO, PLST, RRAGC, VMA5A, TARA, DDAH2, TADA1, GRPE1, ABD12, NU155, OGFR, NPM3, GLOD4, COPRS, DPOE4, MIEN1, TRAP1, VATG1, CHSP1, OCAD1, RANB3, MFR1L, NDUF7, TBC15, PPIL4, MPPB, CYBP, ZCHC8, CD37L, MMS19, ARPIN, HNRPM, NXP20, SPF27, TOE1, Q9D4G5, ATAD1, CF226, IPYR, ORN, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, EIF3F, IFG15, LIMA1, NEK7, RTN3, STK3, NUP50, SYSM, HSPB8, BAG3, CUL3, RABX5, CAF1A, DREB, TOM40, DNJC7, NFU1, FBX6, NUBP1, DEST, TEBP, ACOT9, NFKB2, KAD2, SKP1, PDC6I, VAPA, CARM1, RAD9A, IF2G, SAE2, TRIP6, MBD2, HNRPF
Species: Mus musculus
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Chuh KN, Batt AR, Zaro BW, Darabedian N, Marotta NP, Brennan CK, Amirhekmat A, Pratt MR. The New Chemical Reporter 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc Reveals O-GlcNAc Modification of the Apoptotic Caspases That Can Block the Cleavage/Activation of Caspase-8. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2017 139(23) 28528544
Abstract:
O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is required for survival in mammalian cells. Genetic and biochemical experiments have found that increased modification inhibits apoptosis in tissues and cell culture and that lowering O-GlcNAcylation induces cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms by which O-GlcNAcylation might inhibit apoptosis are still being elucidated. Here, we first synthesize a new metabolic chemical reporter, 6-Alkynyl-6-deoxy-GlcNAc (6AlkGlcNAc), for the identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Subsequent characterization of 6AlkGlcNAc shows that this probe is selectively incorporated into O-GlcNAcylated proteins over cell-surface glycoproteins. Using this probe, we discover that the apoptotic caspases are O-GlcNAcylated, which we confirmed using other techniques, raising the possibility that the modification affects their biochemistry. We then demonstrate that changes in the global levels of O-GlcNAcylation result in a converse change in the kinetics of caspase-8 activation during apoptosis. Finally, we show that caspase-8 is modified at residues that can block its cleavage/activation. Our results provide the first evidence that the caspases may be directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation as a potential antiapoptotic mechanism.
O-GlcNAc proteins:
A2A4A6, A2A5R8, GPTC8, SPD2B, A2ACG7, A2AFQ9, A2AFW6, A2AG46, CKAP5, A2AH75, A2AJ72, MA7D1, A2AL12, A2AMW0, A2AMY5, TPX2, PPIG, LAS1L, A5A4Y9, A6PWC3, A6PWK7, UBP36, B1AT03, B1AT82, B1AU75, B2RQG2, OTUD4, B7ZCP4, B7ZP47, D3YUW8, D3YWF6, D3YWK1, D3YX62, SAFB1, D3YXM7, D3YZ06, D3YZP6, D3Z069, D3Z158, D3Z3F8, D3Z6W2, E0CYM1, E9PUH7, E9PVM7, E9PWG6, E9PWV3, E9PWW9, E9PY48, E9PYT3, E9PZM7, E9Q066, E9Q2X6, E9Q3G8, E9Q450, E9Q4K7, E9Q4Q2, KIF23, BD1L1, NUMA1, E9Q7M2, E9Q986, E9Q9E1, E9Q9H2, E9QKG3, E9QKG6, E9QKZ2, E9QLA5, E9QP49, E9QP59, E9QPI5, F2Z3X7, F6S5I0, F7AA26, F7BQE4, FARP1, F8VQ93, F8VQC7, F8VQE9, F8VQK5, F8WI30, G3UZ44, G3UZX6, G3X8R0, G3X8Y3, G3X928, G3X963, G3X972, G3X9V0, G5E896, G5E8E1, H3BJU7, H3BK31, H3BKK2, H7BX26, I1E4X0, I7HIK9, J3QNW0, DPYL2, GTPB1, AKAP1, TCOF, AIP, HDAC1, RL21, GSH0, KIF1C, DHX15, SC6A6, IF6, ILK, ATX2, NMT1, E41L2, DHB12, SRPK1, ZN326, ZFR, PARG, SPD2A, SP1, CASP8, HPRT, LDHA, G6PI, TYSY, RIR1, GNAI2, ITB1, 4F2, H2B1F, MAP1B, HMOX1, LEG1, G3P, KS6A3, COF1, GNAO, IFRD1, VIME, TPM3, UBL4A, CBX3, CXA1, CATA, IMDH2, IL1RA, MCM3, CDK4, NKTR, FKBP4, CBX2, HMGB2, AIMP1, KAP3, MP2K1, SYWC, KIF4, NEDD1, DPOLA, RANG, UBP4, PTN11, RAB18, PTN1, PTN12, LDLR, DNLI1, CAP1, STAT3, STA5B, PURA, ALD2, RAGP1, NEDD4, STT3A, ALDH2, GSHR, GFPT1, PCY1A, MCM4, ICAL, PLCB3, CDN2A, HDGF, UBP10, KPYM, CCHL, IDHP, DDX6, GOGA3, COX17, ACTN4, GCP3, TB182, EIF3E, ABCE1, PFD3, HNRPK, 1433E, RAP1A, RS25, TCTP, DNJA1, HMGB1, IF5A1, RS17, RS12, UB2L3, HXD13, HDAC2, ELAV1, TP53B, CASP3, PYRG1, TCPB, STIM2, SRSF3, CSRP2, SPTC2, BOP1, SMAD4, M4K4, HNRL2, MARK3, LARP7, CNN2, PP4R2, PEPD, CDCA2, Q3TFP0, GUAA, PDE12, Q3TL72, PRC2C, NOL9, FUBP2, TRADD, CTU2, ZN865, Q3U4W8, Q3UG37, NAT9, NOL8, Q3UJQ9, SC31A, NCBP1, LRRF1, DDX17, LRC47, JIP4, EHMT1, CA050, AAPK1, NSRP1, Q5RL57, Q5SQB0, TENS3, PUR4, Q5UE59, SRC8, SAMH1, KHDR1, GRB10, HELLS, SPB6, RIPK1, CAPR1, ASNS, LAP2A, CDC37, TS101, SNTB2, FNTA, BAP31, PLPP1, FSCN1, FXR1, DDX5, ATRX, HS105, DDX3Y, DDX3X, TGFI1, DBNL, SH3G1, CYTB, SMAD2, NDRG1, ZYX, SQSTM, TPP2, ZN512, LAR4B, F120A, CNDG2, NOP58, LTV1, Q6NV52, Q6NXL1, Q6NZD2, ANKL2, Q6P5B5, XPO1, KIF15, FHOD1, TXLNA, PTN23, JUPI2, NUDC1, TACC1, UBE2O, LARP1, ACAP2, 2AAA, MTCH2, ZN503, CYFP1, HNRPQ, SPAG7, DEK, ACTN1, ATX2L, CKP2L, ZN516, ERBIN, SEPT9, PGRC2, Q80VB6, UBP2L, PI42B, ZN598, SAFB2, Q80ZX0, DLG1, LPP, PEF1, IF4B, FTO, TIPRL, Q8BH80, MISSL, ERC6L, CARF, PRUN1, NUP93, FBX30, HBAP1, AHSA1, RCC2, IPO5, SYLC, CKAP4, MAP11, PALM2, CPNE3, SENP7, CSN7B, NSD2, DPP9, Q8BWW3, KANK2, PXK, PIGT, ITPK1, NHLC2, MAP1S, GWL, PKHH2, CND2, THOP1, SEP11, SKA3, CA198, SEP10, AROS, UBA6, LIPB1, SMAG1, Q8CCM0, ZN276, NAA30, SNX8, SYEP, OGT1, GNL3, PDLI5, FERM2, AGO2, HMCS1, AMERL, SCNM1, DNM1L, NEK9, ANLN, EDC3, MATR3, CHAP1, MEPCE, ERF3A, CC137, TDIF2, VPS18, RFC3, MCMBP, HEXI1, LUZP1, SNP47, TMX1, MAVS, UBXN4, Q8VCQ8, ACSF2, PARN, VIGLN, PSMD2, NAA40, F1142, ZNG1, PAXI, SFPQ, CPIN1, RAB14, IPYR2, PUS7, CSDE1, PIP30, RABE2, CISD1, Q91X76, DUS3L, KCC1A, TTC1, SRGP2, SNX18, RISC, HNRLL, Q921K2, PP6R3, LRC59, UBXN1, DBR1, KCC2G, Q924B0, WAC, SMC6, PAWR, SIAS, STML2, PSIP1, NXF1, PDXD1, NONO, PLST, RRAGC, VMA5A, MAOM, DCTN2, ZN281, CT2NL, GRPE1, ABD12, RTN4, NU155, OGFR, NPM3, NOP16, GLOD4, DUT, MTAP, IFM3, CYB5B, PAF15, PSMD9, WIPI3, SKA2, VATG1, CHSP1, LRC40, RANB3, SMC1A, MFR1L, ARHGP, DDX47, TBC15, PPIL4, MPPB, CYBP, TECR, PAIRB, ZCHC8, SPCS2, Q9CZP3, CD37L, SSBP3, MMS19, MGRN1, ARPIN, HNRPM, SYRC, MCES, Q9D4G5, ATAD1, F162A, TRIR, IPYR, PHF10, ARFG3, ORN, BOLA1, CNN3, KAP0, PLIN3, AKAP8, XRN2, GNAI3, PUR6, RAI14, SENP3, ARFG1, SIL1, VPS35, DGCR8, SYCC, ELP4, LIMA1, XPO2, RBP2, RTN3, PALLD, TMOD3, STK3, COPB, NUP50, DDX21, SH3L1, DDX20, MBNL1, BAG3, GKAP1, ZN207, TRXR1, PPCE, CAF1A, LIMD1, NDRG3, DNJC7, NFU1, COPG1, NUBP1, SMAP, DEST, ACOT9, PR40A, FOXO1, FIZ1, NFKB2, KAD2, AKA12, PRKRA, PDC6I, CHIP, COR1C, VAPA, NDKM, E41L3, TAGL2, CARM1, MTNB, BCL10, IF2G, P5CS, COG1, MD2L1, EIF3G, SAE2, ILF3, TRIP6, USO1, BAZ1B, HNRPF, KEAP1
Species: Mus musculus
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Wu JL, Chiang MF, Hsu PH, Tsai DY, Hung KH, Wang YH, Angata T, Lin KI. O-GlcNAcylation is required for B cell homeostasis and antibody responses. Nature communications 2017 8(1) 29187734
Abstract:
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (Ogt) catalyzes O-GlcNAc modification. O-GlcNAcylation is increased after cross-linking of the B-cell receptor (BCR), but the physiological function of this reaction is unknown. Here we show that lack of Ogt in B-cell development not only causes severe defects in the activation of BCR signaling, but also perturbs B-cell homeostasis by enhancing apoptosis of mature B cells, partly as a result of impaired response to B-cell activating factor. O-GlcNAcylation of Lyn at serine 19 is crucial for efficient Lyn activation and Syk interaction in BCR-mediated B-cell activation and expansion. Ogt deficiency in germinal center (GC) B cells also results in enhanced apoptosis of GC B cells and memory B cells in an immune response, consequently causing a reduction of antibody levels. Together, these results demonstrate that B cells rely on O-GlcNAcylation to maintain homeostasis, transduce BCR-mediated activation signals and activate humoral immunity.