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Huang L, Yuan P, Yu P, Kong Q, Xu Z, Yan X, Shen Y, Yang J, Wan R, Hong K, Tang Y, Hu J. O-GlcNAc-modified SNAP29 inhibits autophagy-mediated degradation via the disturbed SNAP29-STX17-VAMP8 complex and exacerbates myocardial injury in type I diabetic rats. International journal of molecular medicine 2018 42(6) 30221662
The O‑linked β‑N‑acetylglucosamine (O‑GlcNAc) modification and autophagy are associated with diabetic myocardial injury, however, the molecular mechanisms between the two processes remain to be fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the molecular regulation of autophagy by O‑GlcNAc‑modified synaptosomal‑associated protein 29 (SNAP29) in diabetic myocardial injury. A rat model of type I diabetes was established via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg). Significant increases in the O‑GlcNAc modification and accumulation of the autophagy markers microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3α II/I and P62, which suggest that autophagic flux is inhibited, were observed in rats 8 weeks following STZ induction. Subsequently, the selective O‑GlcNAcase inhibitor, thiamet G, increased the level of O‑GlcNAc modification, which further disrupted autophagic flux; deteriorated cardiac diastolic function, as indicated by an increased left ventricular filling peak velocity/atrial contraction flow peak velocity ratio shown by echocardiography; and exacerbated myocardial abnormalities, as characterized by cardiomyocyte disorganization and fat and interstitial fibrosis accumulation. By contrast, 6‑diazo‑5‑oxo‑L‑norleucine, an inhibitor of glucosamine fructose‑6‑phosphate aminotransferase isomerizing 1, acted as an O‑GlcNAc antagonist and reduced the level of O‑GlcNAc modification, which maintained autophagic flux and improved cardiac diastolic function. In vitro, high glucose (25 mM) was used to stimulate primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). Consistent with the myocardium of diabetic rats, it was also shown in the NRCMs that O‑GlcNAc modification of SNAP29 negatively regulated autophagic flux. The application of the short hairpin RNA interference lysosome‑associated membrane protein (LAMP2) and the autophagy inhibitor 3‑methyladenine demonstrated that high glucose inhibited autophagy‑mediated degradation rather than affected the initial stage of autophagy. Finally, co‑immunoprecipitation was used to determine the role of the O‑GlcNAc‑modified substrate protein SNAP29, which acted as an SNAP29‑syntaxin‑17 (STX17)‑vesicle‑associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) complex during disease progression. The present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to demonstrate that SNAP29 is an O‑GlcNAc substrate and that an increase in O‑GlcNAc‑modified SNAP29 inhibits SNAP29‑STX17‑VAMP8 complex formation, thereby inhibiting the degradation of autophagy and exacerbating myocardial injury in type I diabetic rats.
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